Tofino Chapter 2 notes

The People of the Sound - Notes on Sources


The opening quotation is taken from Chief Earl Maquinna George’s book, Living on the Edge.

Population estimates, see Muckle, First Nations of BC and Duff, Indian History of BC .

William Banfield on traditional whaling, see Daily Victoria Gazette, August 14 & 19, 1858. See also Philip Drucker, The Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes; Eugene Arima and Alan Hoover, The Whaling People of the West Coast of Vancouver Island and Cape Flattery.

Banfield wrote eight articles about Vancouver Island’s west coast for the Daily Victoria Gazette in the summer of 1858. The Alberni Valley Times reprinted all of these in February 1984.

All quotations from Peter Webster in this chapter come from As Far as I Know.

For Gilbert Sproat on Tla-o-qui-aht oratory see The Nootka: Scenes and Studies of Savage Life.

John Ross description of potlatch: BC Archives Microfilm Reel 480A.

For more on governance of First Nations in Clayoquot Sound, see the websites of the individual First Nations and that of the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council. See also Ecotrust Canada’s Nuu-chah-nulth Central Region First Nations Governance Structures 2007/2008; Drucker, The Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes; Duff, Indian History of British Columbia.

All quotations from Fred Thornberg here and in later chapters come from his letters to Walter Dawley or from his memoirs.

“In 1856, the combined European population…,” Linda Dorricott and Deirdre Cullen, The Private Journal of Captain G.H. Richards.

For information on the 1862 smallpox outbreak, see Robert Boyd, The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence; Douglas Hamilton, “The Great Pox,” Raincoast Chronicles #17, 1996.



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