MOSS ANIMALS (Bryozoans) Phylum BRYOZOA (aka Ectoprocta)

Existing as a colony of very tiny, nearly independent individuals called zooids, a bryozoan or moss animal is often symmetrical of pattern. The name “moss animals” results from the resemblance between encrusting bryozoans and thin patches of moss found on rock. Colonies are sessile (attached) and through asexual budding or “cloning” of zooids may spread out mat-like or stack up like a mini high-rise building, depending on the species. Superficially some bryozoans resemble other, very different organisms such as hydroids, hydrocorals or even seaweeds!
Three basic colony designs, shown here, are noticeable to the naturalist: encrusting or flat (photograph A, orange encrusting bryozoan BZ7), erect, branching and flexible (articulate) (photograph B, stick bryozoan BZ18) and erect, branching and calcified (inarticulate) (photograph C, fluted bryozoan BZ24).
Each zooid secretes an often highly ornamented house (chamber) made of calcium carbonate—species-specific of design—around itself. Normally the worm-like zooid body extends about halfway out of the house, revealing a ring of tentacles surrounding the lophophore. The filter-feeding lophophore uses millions of tiny beating hairs or cilia to propel tiny particles of food (such as bacteria, tiny algae and detritus) toward the gullet. The mouth is inside the incomplete circle of tentacles, and the anus is located outside and below—thus the name “ectoproct” (outside anus).
At least 300 species of bryozoans or moss animals live in the marine waters of the Pacific Northwest.

Categories:

BZ1. KELP-ENCRUSTING BRYOZOAN, kelp encrusting bryozoan, kelp lace bryozoan, lacy-crust bryozoan, kelp lacy bryozoan, white-encrusting bryozoan, kelp lace, lacy crust, encrusting bryozoan, jackfrost bryozoan, tree bryozoan

Membranacea villosa, Membranacea serrilamella, Membranipora membranacea

BZ2. CORAL BRYOZOANS

Lichenopora spp.

BZ3. GLASSY-WHITE ENCRUSTING BRYOZOAN

Celleporella hyalina, Hippothoa hyalina, Schizoporella hyalina

BZ4. PURPLE ENCRUSTING BRYOZOAN

Disporella separata

BZ5. YELLOW ENCRUSTING BRYOZOAN

Rhynchozoon rostratum, Lepralia rostrata

BZ6. DERBY HAT BRYOZOAN, rosy bryozoan, rose-colored bryozoan

Eurystomella bilabiata, Lepralia bilabiata

BZ7. ORANGE ENCRUSTING BRYOZOAN, orange crust bryozoan

Schizoporella unicornis, Schizoporella japonicus, Lepralia unicornis

BZ8. BLACK AND RED ENCRUSTING BRYOZOAN

 

BZ8A. KEYHOLE BRYOZOAN

Cryptosula pallasiana

BZ9. TUBEWORM FUZZ

Bowerbankia sp.

BZ10. SPIRAL BRYOZOAN, stiff stalk bryozoan, California moss animal, Pacific branching bryozoan

Bugulina californica, Bugula californica, Bugula pacifica ?

 

BZ11. PARASOL BRYOZOAN

Caulibugula californica, Stirparia californica, Stirpariella californica

BZ12. FAN BRYOZOAN

Dendrobeania murrayana

BZ13. Leaf crust bryozoan, sea lichen bryozoan, sea-lichen bryozoan, sea lichen, lichen bryozoan, leaf bryozoan, sea mat bryozoan

Dendrobeania lichenoides, Flustra lichenoides, Dendrobeania laxa?

BZ14. WHITE TUFT BRYOZOANS

Crisia spp.

BZ15. SPINY LEATHER BRYOZOAN, branch-spined bryozoan, branched-spine bryozoan

Flustrellidra spinifera, Flustrellidra corniculata, Flustrella cornicula, Alcyonidium spinifera, Alcyonidium...

BZ16. SMOOTH LEATHER BRYOZOAN

Alcyonidium pedunculatum

BZ17. SPINDLY RABBIT-EAR BRYOZOAN

Cellaria diffusa, Cellularia diffusa

BZ18. STICK BRYOZOAN

Microporella borealis, Microporina borealis

BZ19. LATTICE-WORK BRYOZOAN, lacy orange bryozoan, lacy bryozoan, lace-coral bryozoan, lace coral bryozoan, coralline bryozoan, lace coral, calcareous coralline bryozoan

Phidolopora pacifica, Phidolopora labiata, Retepora pacifica

BZ20. NORTHERN STAGHORN BRYOZOAN, staghorn bryozoan, false coral

Heteropora pacifica, Tretocycloecia pacifica, Heteropora neozelanica, possible equivalent: Tetrocyloecia magna

 

BZ21. DELICATE STAGHORN BRYOZOAN

Heteropora alaskensis, Heteropora pacifica alaskensis, Heteropora pelliculata

BZ22. SOUTHERN STAGHORN BRYOZOAN, white branching bryozoan, coralline bryozoan

Diaperoforma californica, Diaperoecia californica, Idmonea californica, Idmonea palmata

BZ23. RUSTY BRYOZOAN

Celleporina robertsoni, Costazia ventricosa

BZ24. FLUTED BRYOZOAN, fluted coral bryozoan, sculptured bryozoan

Primavelans insculpta, Hippodiplosia insculpta, Schizoporella insculpta