For Further Reading

The following is a selective list of the major sources for this book, not including newspaper and journal articles.


Private Collections and Archives

Many unpublished documents and memoirs, personal letters, scrapbooks, and private collections of material have been made available to us by various individuals. These have been central sources in several chapters.

Archival collections consulted include: Alberni District Historical Society and Alberni Valley Museum; Diocese of Victoria archives; BC Archives and Royal BC Museum; Library and Archives Canada; Mount Angel Abbey library; Pacific Rim National Park Reserve archives; Queen of Angels Monastery archives; Surveyor General Division, Land Title and Survey Authority of BC.

At the BC Archives certain collections stand out: Walter Dawley’s papers, the Earl Marsh Accession, Crown Land Pre-emption Records, and annual reports and records of various provincial governmental departments.

At Mount Angel Abbey library: the diary of Father Charles Moser, and letters and papers of Father Maurus Snyder (including many letters from Father Brabant).

At Library and Archives Canada: correspondence and reports about the Christie and Ahousat residential schools from the RG 10 collection, particularly Volumes 6430, 6431, 6439, and 6441.


Journals and Newspapers

See the “Victoria’s Victoria” website for access to the British Colonist (from 1859) and the Victoria Daily Colonist (from 1910):

Ha-shilth-sa newspaper.

Tofino Time magazine.

West Coast Journal, The Westerly, Westerly News. Weekly newspapers from Ucluelet and Tofino. Incomplete collection, 1983–99, courtesy of Adrienne Mason

West Coast Advocate. “Tofino News” columns and other articles about Tofino, 1939–57, courtesy of Adrienne Mason.

The Sound magazine from 1991–99, courtesy of Adrienne Mason.

We have consulted several municipal sources. These include documents concern- ing land transactions on Stubbs Island and Wickaninnish Island, from the Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District office, Port Alberni. From Tofino Municipal offices: Tofino Board of Trade minutes (1929 onward) and Tofino Village Council minutes (1932 onward).



Arbour, Daniel, Brenda Kuecks, and Danielle Edwards, eds. Nuu-chah-nulth Central Region First Nations Governance Structures 2007/2008. Vancouver: Ecotrust Canada, September 2008. See online at

Bouchard, Randy, and Dorothy Kennedy. Clayoquot Sound Indian Land Use. Prepared for MacMillan-Bloedel Limited, Fletcher Challenge, and the British Columbia Ministry of Forests. Victoria: BC Indian Language Project November 1990.

Scientific Panel for Sustainable Forest Practices in Clayoquot Sound. First Nations’ Perspectives Relating to Forest Practices Standards in Clayoquot Sound: Appendices V and VI. Victoria: Cortex Consultants Inc., March 1995.



Abraham, Dorothy. Lone Cone: A Journal of Life on the West Coast of Vancouver Island, B.C. Victoria: privately printed, 1945.

Adachi, Ken. The Enemy that Never Was: A History of the Japanese Canadians. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1976.

Arima, E.Y. The West Coast (Nootka) People. Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Museum, 1983.

Arima, Eugene, and Alan Hoover. The Whaling People of the West Coast of Vancouver Island and Cape Flattery. Victoria: Royal BC Museum, 2011.

Atleo, E. Richard (Umeek). Tsawalk: A Nuu-chah-nulth Worldview. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2004.

Barrett-Lennard, Charles Edward. Travels in British Columbia with the Narrative of a Yacht Voyage around Vancouver’s Island. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1862.

Banfill, Nurse B.J. With the Indians of the Pacific. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1966.

Barman, Jean. The West Beyond the West: A History of British Columbia. 2nd ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

Berman, Tzeporah, Christopher Hatch, Maurice Gibbons, Ronald B. Hatch, Gordon Brent Ingram, and Loys Maignon. Clayoquot and Dissent. Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 1994.

Berman, Tzeporah, with Mark Leiren-young. This Crazy Time: Living our Environmental Challenge. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 2011.

Bossin, Bob. Settling Clayoquot. Victoria: Provincial Archives of British Columbia, 1981.

Boyd, Robert. The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence: Introduced Infectious Diseases and Population Decline among Northwest Coast Indians 1774–1874. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999.

Breen-Needham, Howard, Sandy Frances Duncan, and Deborah Ferens, eds. Witness to Wilderness: The Clayoquot Sound Anthology. Vancouver: Arsenal, 1994.

Bridge, Kathryn. Extraordinary Accounts of Native Life on the West Coast: Words from Huu-Ay-Aht Ancestors. Canmore: Altitude Publishing, 2004.

Busch, Briton Cooper. The War Against the Seals: A History of the North American Seal Fishery. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1985.

Cail, Robert E. Land, Man, and the Law: The Disposal of Crown Lands in British Columbia, 1871–1913. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1974.

Campbell, K. Mack. Cannery Village: Company Town: A History of British Columbia’s Outlying Salmon Canneries. Victoria: Trafford Publishing, 2004.

Cannings, Richard and Sydney Cannings. British Columbia: A Natural History. Vancouver: Greystone Books, 1996.

Clayton, Daniel W. Islands of Truth: The Imperial Fashioning of Vancouver Island. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2000.

Cole, Douglas, and Ira Chaikin. An Iron Hand Upon the People: The Law Against the Potlatch on the Northwest Coast. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1990.

Cole, Douglas. Captured Heritage: The Scramble for Northwest Coast Artifacts. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1985.

Coyle, Brendan. War On Our Doorstep: The Unknown Campaign on North America’s West Coast. Surrey: Heritage House, 2002.

Crockford, Cairn Elizabeth. “Nuu-Chah-Nulth Relations in the Pelagic Sealing Industry, 1868–1911.” MA thesis, University of Victoria, 1996.

Dorricott, Linda, and Deidre Cullon, eds. The Private Journal of Captain G.H. Richards: The Vancouver Island Survey (1860–1862). Ronsdale Press: Vancouver, 2012.

Drucker, Philip. Indians of the Northwest Coast. Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press, 1963.

Drucker, Philip. The Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology, 1951.

Duff, Wilson. The Indian History of British Columbia Vol. 1: The Impact of the White Man. Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Museum, 1965.

Efrat, Barbara S., and W.J. Langlois. Nutka: The History and Survival of Nootkan Culture. Victoria: Provincial Archives of British Columbia, 1978.

Faa, Eric. Norwegians in the Northwest: Settlement in British Columbia, 1858–1918. Victoria: Runestad, 1995.

Fisher, Robin. Contact and Conflict: Indian-European Relations in British Columbia, 1774–1890. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1977.

Ford, John K.B. Marine Mammals of British Columbia. Victoria: Royal BC Museum, 2014.

Francis, Daniel, ed. Encyclopedia of British Columbia. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2000.

Fukawa, Masako, with Stanley Fukawa and the Nikkei Fishermen’s History Book Committee. Spirit of the Nikkei Fleet: BC’s Japanese Canadian Fishermen. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2009.

Fukawa, Masako, ed. Nikkei Fishermen on the BC Coast: Their Biographies and Photographs. Madeira Park, B.C.: Harbour Publishing, 2007.

George, Chief Earl Maquinna. Living on the Edge: Nuu-Chah-Nulth History from an Ahousaht Chief’s Perspective. Winlaw, BC: Sono Nis 2003.

Gibson, Gordon. Bull of the Woods. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1980.

Gibson, James. Otter Skins, Boston Ships, and China Goods: The Maritime Fur Trade of the Northwest Coast 1785–1841. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2001.

Glavin, Terry. The Last Great Sea: A Voyage through the Human and Natural History of the North Pacific Ocean. Vancouver: Greystone Books, 2003.

Golden Jubilee of Christie Indian Residential School: 1900–1950. Victoria: Acme Press, 1950.

Gough, Barry M. Gunboat Frontier: British Maritime Authority and Northwest Coast Indians 1846–1890. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1984.

Gough, Barry. Fortune’s a River: The Collision of Empires in Northwest America. Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 2007.

Gough, Barry. The Northwest Coast: British Navigation, Trade and Discoveries to 1812. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1992.

Guppy, Anthony. The Tofino Kid: From India to this Wild West Coast. Duncan, BC: Fir Grove Publishing, 2000.

Guppy, Walter. Wet Coast Ventures: Mine-Finding on Vancouver Island. Victoria: Cappis Press, 1988.

Guppy, Walter. Clayoquot Soundings: A History of Clayoquot Sound 1880s–1980s. Tofino, BC: Grassroots Publication, 1997.

Guppy, Walter. Eighty Years in Tofino. Duncan, BC: Fir Grove Publishing, 2002.

Hagelund, William A. Whalers No More. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 1986.

Harper, Frank. Journeys: Stories from Clayoquot Sound. Tofino, BC: Cherub Books, 2006.

Harris, R. Cole. Making Native Space: Colonialism, Resistance, and Reserves in British Columbia. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2002.

Harris, Douglas C. Landing Native Fisheries: Indian Reserves and Fishing Rights in British Columbia 1849–1925. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2008.

Hayman, John, Ed. Robert Brown and the Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1989.

Hempsall, Leslie. We Stand on Guard for Thee: A History of the War Years at the Royal Canadian Air Force Stations, Ucluelet and Tofino. Surrey, BC: Coomber-Hempsall Publishing, 2003.

Horsfield, Margaret. Voices from the Sound: Chronicles of Clayoquot Sound and Tofino 1899–1929. Nanaimo, BC: Salal Books, 2008.

Hume, Stephen, Betty Keller, Otto Langer, Rosella M. Leslie, Alexandra

Morton, and Don Staniford. A Stain Upon the Sea: West Coast Salmon Farming. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2004.

Jewitt, John. White Slaves of Maquinna: John R. Jewitt’s Narrative of Capture and Confinement at Nootka. Surrey, BC: Heritage House, 2000.

Johnson, Peter. Glyphs and Gallows: The Rock Art of Clo-oose and the Wreck of the John Bright. Surrey, BC: Heritage House, 1999.

Kelm, Mary-Ellen. Colonizing Bodies: Aboriginal Health and Healing in British Columbia, 1900–1950. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1999.

Layland, Michael. The Land of Heart’s Delight: Early Maps and Charts of Vancouver Island. Victoria: TouchWood, 2013.

Lillard, Charles. Seven Shillings a Year: The History of Vancouver Island. Ganges, BC: Horsdal & Schubart, 1993.

Lillard, Charles, ed. Mission to Nootka 1874–1900: Reminiscences of the West Coast of Vancouver Island. Sidney, BC: Gray’s Publishing, 1977.

Lowther, Christine, and Anita Sinner, editors and contributors. Writing the West Coast: In Love with Place. Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 2008.

McDiarmid, Howard. Pacific Rim Park: A Country Doctor’s Role in Preserving Long Beach and Establishing the New Wickaninnish Inn. Victoria: privately printed, 2009.

MacGillivray, Don. Captain Alex MacLean: Jack London’s Sea Wolf. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2008.

MacIsaac, Ronald, and Anne Champagne, eds. Clayoquot Mass Trials: Defending the Rainforest. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 1994.

McKelvie, B.A. Tales of Conflict: Indian-White Murders and Massacres in British Columbia. Surrey, BC: Heritage House, 1985.

McKervill, Hugh W. The Salmon People. Sidney, BC: Gray’s Publishing, 1967.

Mackie, Richard, and Graeme Wynn, eds. Home Truths: Highlights from BC History. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2012.

Magnusson, Warren, and Karena Shaw, eds. A Political Space: Reading the Global through Clayoquot Sound. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002.

Mason, Adrienne. Historic Tofino: A Walk in Time. Tofino, BC: Postelsia Press, 2012.

Mason, Adrienne. Long Beach Wild: A Celebration of People and Place on Canada’s Rugged Western Shore. Vancouver: Greystone Books, 2012.

Meggs, Geoff. Salmon: The Decline of the British Columbia Fishery. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1991.

Milloy, John S. A National Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System, 1879 to 1986. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1999.

Miller, J.R. Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Native Residential Schools. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

Muckle, Robert J. The First Nations of British Columbia. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1998.

Murray, Peter. The Vagabond Fleet: A Chronicle of the North Pacific Sealing Schooner Trade. Victoria: Sono Nis Press, 1988.

Newell, Dianne. Tangled Webs of History: Indians and the Law in Canada’s Pacific Coast Fisheries. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993.

Nicholson, George. Vancouver Island’s West Coast 1762–1962. Victoria: privately printed, 1965.

Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council. Indian Residential Schools: The Nuu-chah-nulth Experience: Report of the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Indian Residential School Study, 1992–1994, Port Alberni, BC: Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council, 1996.

Ormsby, Margaret. British Columbia: A History. Vancouver: Macmillan, 1958.

Palmer, Tim. Pacific High: Adventures in the Coast Ranges from Baja to Alaska. Washington, D.C: Island Press, 2002.

Peterson, Jan. Journeys: Down the Alberni Canal to Barkley Sound. Lantzville, BC: Oolichan Books, 1999.

Pethick, Derek. First Approaches to the Northwest Coast. Vancouver: J.J. Douglas, 1976.

Pitt-Brooke, David. Chasing Clayoquot: A Wilderness Almanac. Vancouver: Raincoast Books, 2004.

Platenius, John. Tofino Guide. Tofino, BC: Wild Cedar Publishing, 2011.

Popp, Carol. The Gumboot Navy: Memories of the Fishermen’s Reserve. Lantzville, BC: Oolichan Books, 1988.

Ridley, Scott. Morning of Fire: John Kendrick’s Daring American Odyssey in the Pacific. New York: HarperCollins, 2010.

Robson, Peter A. Salmon Farming: The Whole Story. Vancouver: Heritage House, 2006.

Reksten, Terry. The Illustrated History of British Columbia. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2001.

Scott, Andrew. The Encyclopedia of Raincoast Place Names: A Complete Reference to Coastal British Columbia. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2009.

Shilling, Grant. The Cedar Surf: An Informal History of Surfing in British Columbia. Vancouver: New Star Books, 2003.

Sproat, Gilbert Malcolm. The Nootka: Scenes and Studies of Savage Life. Edited and annotated by Charles Lilliard. Victoria, BC: Sono Nis Press, 1987. First published 1868 by Smith, Elder & Co.

Stewart, Hilary. Cedar. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 1984.

Streetly, Joanna, ed. Salt In Our Blood: An Anthology of West Coast Moments. Tofino, BC: Aquila Instincts, 2002.

Suttles, Wayne, ed. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 7: Northwest Coast. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 1990.

Tamm, Eric Enno. Beyond the Outer Shores. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2004.

Thompson, Jerry. Cascadia’s Fault. Toronto: HarperCollins, 2011.

Titley, Brian. A Narrow Vision: Duncan Campbell Scott and the Administration of Indian Affairs in Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1986.

Turner, Nancy J., and Barbara S. Efrat. Ethnobotany of the Hesquiaht Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Provincial Museum Cultural Recovery Papers, No. 2. Victoria: Royal BC Museum, 1982.

Twigg, Alan. First Invaders: The Literary Origins of British Columbia. Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 2004.

Usukawa, Saeko, ed. Sound Heritage: Voices from British Columbia, Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1984.

Webster, Peter S. As Far as I Know: Reminiscences of an Ahousat Elder. Campbell River, BC: Campbell River Museum and Archives, 1983.

Wilson, Jeremy. Talk and Log: Wilderness Politics in British Columbia. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1998.

Woolford, Andrew. Between Justice and Certainty: Treaty Making in British Columbia. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2005.

Yorath, C.J. The Geology of Southern Vancouver Island: Revised Edition. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2005.


Online Material

Ahousaht First Nation. Ahousaht First Nation.

Clayoquot Biosphere Trust. Clayoquot Biosphere Trust.

Clayoquot Sound Research Group. A Political Space: Reading the Global through Clayoquot Sound. Archived online by the University of Victoria.

Friends of Clayoquot Sound. Friends of Clayoquot Sound.

Government of Canada. “First Nation Profiles”: Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.

Government of Canada. “Indian Affairs Annual Reports, 1864–1990.” Library and Archives Canada.

Government of Canada. “Schedule of Indian Reserves in the Dominion of Canada Part 2 Reserves in the Province of British Columbia Recompiled and Corrected up to March 31, 1943.” Library and Archives Canada.

Nikkei National Museum & Cultural Centre. “Nikkei Images.” Nikkei National Museum & Cultural Centre.

Province of British Columbia. “Historic Crown Grant Search.” The Province of British Columbia.

Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations. Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations.

Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations. “Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations Newsletter.” Tla-o-quiaht First Nations.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. “Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada Webcast.” Livestream. (For dates and locations of specific TRC testimony cited in this book, see the notes on sources available on the Harbour Publishing website.)

Union of BC Indian Chiefs. “Unpublished Material.” Union of BC Indian Chiefs.

United Church of Canada Archives. “Ahousaht Indian Residential School.” The Children Remembered.


Clayoquot Sound Timelines

Friends of Clayoquot Sound. “History.” Friends of Clayoquot Sound.

Iisaak Forest Resources. “Timeline 1978–2008.” Iisaak Forest Resources.

Ross, Andrew. “Clayoquot Sound Chronology.” A Political Space: Reading the Global through Clayoquot Sound. Archived online by the University of Victoria.

Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations. “Towards Resolution of the Land Question for Tla-oqui-aht.” Inside Tla-o-qui-aht 10, no. 2 (September 2008): 12–17.

Union of BC Indian Chiefs. “Historical Timeline: From 1700s to the Present.” Union of BC Indian Chiefs.

United Church of Canada Archives. “Ahousaht IRS Timeline.” The Children Remembered.