The North Vancouver Museum & Archives (NVMA) contains a wealth of primary source material about all aspects of North Vancouver history, too numerous to be listed below. The author wishes to thank archivist Janet Turner, reference historian Daien Ide, curator Karen Dearlove, community engagement curator Lisa Wilson, museum director Nancy Kirkpatrick and museum assistant director Shirley Sutherland for all their advice and assistance. Nancy, Janet and Shirley read an early draft of the book and made many useful suggestions for improvements, as did District Mayor Richard Walton, a long-time resident of the North Shore. Thanks also to Sanford Osler, Sheryl Fisher and Robert Watt, who also read an early draft, and to Anna Gooding, who assisted with image collection.

A great deal of the information in Where Mountains Meet the Sea was gathered from interviews with residents of the District and City carried out over a number of years by a variety of interviewers. These interviews, some of them transcribed, can be accessed at the NVMA.

The author was helped greatly by research done over the years by local historian Roy Pallant. A particularly useful source was the Visions of North Shore, a research project carried out in 1999–2000 exploring the history of twelve neighbourhoods across the North Shore. The project resulted in a series of annotated essays, edited by Laura Millar, and available at the NVMA.

General written sources include Doreen Armitage, Burrard Inlet: A History (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2001); Robert E. Cail, Land, Man and the Law: The Disposal of Crown Lands in British Columbia , 1871–1913 (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1974); Chuck Davis, Reflections—One Hundred Years: A Celebration of the District of North Vancouver’s Centennial (Vancouver: Opus Productions, 1990); Sharon Proctor, Time Travel in North Vancouver (Surrey, BC: Hancock House, 2010); Shervin Shahriari, North Vancouver’s Lonsdale Neighbourhood (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2009); Warren Sommer, The Ambitious City: A History of the City of North Vancouver (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2007); and Marjorie Woodward-Reynolds, A History of the City and District of North Vancouver (MA thesis, UBC, 1943). A number of relevant planning documents are available on the websites of the City and the District. More specific studies are listed below under the relevant chapters.

Chapter One

Useful accounts of the visits to Burrard Inlet by the early European explorers are Tomas Bartroli, Genesis of Vancouver City: Explorations of Its Site 1791, 1792 & 1808 (Vancouver: self-published, 1997); Robin Fisher, Vancouver’s Voyage: Charting the Northwest Coast, 1791–1795 (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1992); and Jim McDowell, Uncharted Waters: the Explorations of José Narváez, 1768–1840 (Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 2015). Accounts of the First Nations occupation are in Jean Barman, Stanley Park’s Secret: The Forgotten Families of Whoi Whoi, Kanaka Ranch and Brockton Point (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2005) and Jesse Morin, “Tsleil-Waututh Nation’s History, Culture and Aboriginal Interests in Eastern Burrard Inlet” (May 2015, available online through the Sacred Trust). Also useful is Pauline Johnson, Legends of Vancouver (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1997, originally published 1911) and Major James Skitt Matthews, Early Vancouver, vol 2. (Vancouver: City of Vancouver, 2011). Sources on the history of Moodyville are A. L. Lazenby, Moody and Moodyville (unpublished manuscript, North Vancouver Museum & Archives Library, 2010); C. James Taylor, “Moodyville and Hastings Mill: Historic Burrard Inlet Sawmill” (unpublished Agenda Paper, Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, Ottawa 1988); F. W. Howay, “Early Settlements on Burrard Inlet,” bc Historical Quarterly (April 1937), 101–14; and James W. Morton, The Enterprising Mr. Moody, the Bumptious Captain Stamp (Vancouver: J. J. Douglas, 1977). In Waterfront: The Illustrated Maritime Story of Greater Vancouver (Vancouver: Stanton, Atkins & Dosil, 2005), James P. Delgado offers an illustrated history of developments around the harbour, including on the North Shore. First-hand accounts of longshoring are in Ben Swankey, “Man Along the Shore!”: the Story of the Vancouver Waterfront (Vancouver: ILWU Local 500, 1975). For early settlement in West Vancouver, see Francis Mansbridge, Cottages to Communities: The Story of West Vancouver’s Neighbourhoods (West Vancouver: West Vancouver Historical Society, 2011) and Elspeth Bradbury, West Vancouver: A View Through the Trees (West Vancouver: District of West Vancouver, 2007). The different ferries are described in Capt. James Barr, Ferry Across the Harbor: The Story of the North Vancouver Ferries (Vancouver: Mitchell Press, 1969) and John R. Burnes, Echoes of the Ferries: A History of the North Vancouver Ferry Service (n.p., n.d.). For the North Shore bridges, see Eric Jamieson, Tragedy at Second Narrows: The Story of the Ironworkers Memorial Bridge (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2008) and Lilia D’Acres and Donald Luxton, Lions Gate (Burnaby: Talonbooks, 1999). Shipbuilding is the subject of Francis Mansbridge, Launching History: The Saga of Burrard Dry Dock (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2002) and T. A. McLaren and Vickie Jensen, Ships of Steel: A British Columbia Shipbuilder’s Story (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2000). Also useful was F. G. Architectural and Planning Consultants, Versatile Pacific Shipyards Heritage Report (1991). The story of the PGE Railway on the North Shore is told in Patrick O. Hind, The Pacific Great Eastern Railway: A Short History of the North Shore Subdivision, 1914–1928 (North Vancouver: North Vancouver Museum & Archives Commission, 1999), while developments in the port are in John Everitt and Warren Gill, “The Early Development of Terminal Grain Elevators on Canada’s Pacific Coast,” Western Geography 15/16 (2005/2006), 28–52, and Transport Canada, Planning Lasting Infrastructure (SNC Lavalin: North Shore Trade Area Study Final Report, September 30, 2008).

Chapter Two

Political developments in early North Vancouver are described in John R. Burnes, North Vancouver, 1891–1907: Saga of a Municipality in its Formative Days (North Vancouver: n.p., 1970). The streetcars are the subject of Henry Ewert, The Perfect Little Streetcar System (North Vancouver: North Vancouver Museum Commission, 2000). Descriptions of the different neighbourhoods are in Donald J. Bourdon, The Boom Years: G. G. Nye’s Photographs of North Vancouver 1905–1909 (North Vancouver: Hancock House, 1981); Thomas B. Diplock, “The North Shore As I Knew It from 1897” (unpublished typescript, North Vancouver Museum & Archives, Item 560, 1978); Walter Draycott, Early Days in Lynn Valley (North Vancouver: District of North Vancouver, 2000, 2nd ed.); Fred Hollingsworth, Living Spaces: the Architecture of Fred Thornton Hollingsworth (Vancouver: Blueimprint, 2005); Donald Luxton, The Modern Architecture of North Vancouver, 1930–1965 (North Vancouver: District of North Vancouver, 1998); James W. Morton, Capilano: The Story of a River (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1970); Janet Pavlik, Echoes Across Seymour: A History of North Vancouver’s Eastern Communities Including Dollarton and Deep Cove (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2012); and Dawn Sparks and Martha Border, Echoes Across the Inlet (North Vancouver: Deep Cove and Area Heritage Association, 1989). Early logging in the Capilano, Lynn Creek and Seymour watersheds is detailed in Thomas B. Diplock, “Some Recollections of Early Days in the Sawmill Business on the North Shore” (unpublished paper, North Vancouver Museum & Archives, Item 560, n.d.); in three studies by Gabrielle Kahrer: “A Historical Geography of Logging Along Lynn Creek: 1870s to 1928” (unpublished paper, April 1987, North Vancouver Museum & Archives); “Logging and Landscape Change on the North Shore of Burrard Inlet, 1860s–1930s” (MA thesis, University of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, 1988); From Speculative to Spectacular: The Seymour River Valley 1870s to 1980s. A History of Resource Use (Burnaby: Greater Vancouver Regional District Parks Department, 1989); and David M. Rees-Thomas, Timber Down the Capilano: A History of the Capilano Timber Company (Victoria: British Columbia Railway Historical Society, 1979). Gray Scrimgeour tells the story of maritime postal delivery in “Burrard Inlet (2) Revisited,” Postal History Society of Canada Journal, No. 141 (Spring 2010), 3–14. The most complete history of Indian Arm is Ralph Drew, Ferries & Fjord: The History of Indian Arm, Its Ferries & Docks, Travelling Post Offices & Floating Grocery Stores (Belcarra: s.p., 2015). Along with James W. Morton, the opening of the Capilano reservoir is in Louis P. Cain, “Water and Sanitation Services in Vancouver: An Historical Perspective,” BC Studies 30 (Summer 1976), 27–43, and Sean Kheraj, Inventing Stanley Park: An Environmental History (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2013). The story of the Blair Rifle Range is described in detail in Donna Sacuta, “Building Andy’s Range: The History of the Blair Rifle Range in North Vancouver” (2014, available online through the Deep Cove Heritage Society). Wartime housing is the subject of two studies by Jill Wade: “Wartime Housing Limited, 1941–47: Canadian Housing Policy at the Crossroads” (MA thesis, Dept. of History, University of British Columbia, 1984) and Houses for All: The Struggle for Social Housing in Vancouver, 1919–1950 (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1994). Wartime defences on the North Shore are detailed in Peter N. Moogk, Vancouver Defended: A History of Men and Guns of the Lower Mainland Defences, 1859–1945 (Vancouver: Antonson Publishing Ltd., 1978). The history of Cates Park (Whey-ah-Wichen), as First Nations home, industrial site and parkland, is in Tsleil-Waututh Nation and District of North Vancouver, Cates Park/Whey-ah-Wichen Park Master Plan and Cultural Resources Interpretation Master Plan (North Vancouver: May 2006). Sally Carswell describes the development of a public hospital on the North Shore in her The Story of Lions Gate Hospital (West Vancouver: Carswell and Carswell, 1980). The history of the library system is the subject of Don Obee’s Fifty! With a Fabulous Future: A History of the North Vancouver District Public Library (North Vancouver: NVDPL, 2014). The story of the squatters’ shacks is in Sheryl Salloum, Malcolm Lowry, Vancouver Days (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 1987) and by the same author, “The By-Gone Days of Dollarton,” Raincoast Chronicles 15 (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 1993: 68–77), as well as West of Eden (North Vancouver: Presentation House Gallery, 2014). The politics of re-amalgamation are discussed in Karl Newholm, “North Vancouver City and District: The Amalgamation Issue” (unpublished paper, 31 March 1987, North Vancouver Museum & Archives, Item 672). The First Nations communities are the subject of Simon Baker, Khot-La-Cha: The Autobiography of Chief Simon Baker (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1994) and Thomas Lascelles, Mission on the Inlet: St. Paul’s Indian Catholic Church, North Vancouver, bc, 1863–1984 (Vancouver: Oblates of Mary Immaculate, 1984). From Far and Wide: Cultural Diversity in North Vancouver (City of North Vancouver, 2015) by Warren Sommer, describes the different cultural communities in North Vancouver.

Chapter Three

For coastal mountaineering, see Susan Leslie, ed., In the Western Mountains: Early Mountaineering in British Columbia (Sound Heritage Series, vol. VIII, No. 4, 1980) and Francis Mansbridge, Hollyburn: The Mountain and the City (Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 2008). As well, the Mount Seymour History Project ( contains a wealth of information about cabin culture on the mountains. Along with Morton’s Capilano, a valuable source of information about recreation and tourism in the Capilano Valley is Donald J. Bourdon, “Early Recreational Businesses in Capilano, North Vancouver, BC, 1900–1939” (unpublished paper, 1975, North Vancouver Museum & Archives 684). See also Eleanore Dempster, The Laughing Bridge: A Personal History of the Capilano Suspension Bridge (Maple Ridge: Impressions in Print, 1988) for an account of the suspension bridge. The pre-history of North Shore Rescue is in Paddy Sherman, “Formation of the Mountain Rescue Group,” Canadian Alpine Journal, vol. XL (1957), 87–89. The origins of the Green Necklace, indeed the origins of North Vancouver, are described in Walter O. Volovsek, The Green Necklace: The Vision Quest of Edward Mahon (Castlegar: Otmar Publishing, 2012).

Chauffeur Harry Stevens and guests in the 1912 Mitchell touring car that taxied visitors to and from the Canyon View Hotel, located at the site of today’s Cleveland Dam, ca. 1914. NVMA 6724


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