Complete Bibliography

Private Documents
Municipal Sources
Archival Sources
Journals and Newspapers
Theses and Papers
Online Material
Clayoquot Sound Timelines


Private Documents

Air Raid Drill Regulations for the Tofino School, undated, probably 1942, handwritten two-page document, courtesy of Ken Gibson.

Gene Aitkens letters, courtesy of Fran Aitkens

Edward Arnet, eulogies for Betty Farmer and Tommy Kimoto, courtesy of Dorothy Arnet.

Alder Bloom, unpublished document/memoirs, courtesy of Ken Gibson

Raymond Brewster, letters to his sisters, courtesy of the late Nan Beere

Elida Burchett, “A Short History of the Village of Tofino,” unpublished document, incomplete, two pages, undated, 1960s?, courtesy of Adrienne Mason.

John Cooper, letter to Mrs. A. Murray, December 3, 1946, courtesy of Adrienne Mason.

Dr. Douglas S. Dixson, diary for 1916-17, courtesy of Ronald J. MacLeod (Campbell River).

John Eik personal papers, letters to Eik from the Custodian of Enemy Property, 1944. Courtesy of Dorothy Arnet and Roly Arnet.

Sid Elkington, unpublished memoirs, courtesy of Ken Gibson.

Mary Evans, “History of Tofino” unpublished document, 1956-57, 5 pages, courtesy of Ken Gibson.

Mary Evans, recollections of her father and mother-in-law, David Shaw Evans and Hannah Jane Evans, unpublished document, 5 pages, undated, courtesy of Adrienne Mason.

Daphne Gibson’s scrapbooks, courtesy of Ken Gibson

Transcript of George Jackson’s diary from Long Beach, 1927 – 1929, courtesy of Adrienne Mason. Original in BC Archives, MS 1113.

Mike Hamilton, unpublished memoirs and papers, courtesy of Ken Gibson.

Mike Hamilton, letters to Mabel Hall, early 1920s, courtesy of the late Joan Niblock.

Manuscript of article about Betty Farmer, two pages, 1963, courtesy of Mildred Jeffrey.

“Ewen MacLeod,” unpublished manuscript, date unknown, courtesy of Mary (MacLeod) Hardy. Information from Ewen MacLeod’s surviving accounts book also courtesy of Mary Hardy.

Ronald MacLeod (White Rock), “Growing Up in Tofino: Some Random Memories.” 2002. Held in the Tofino Public Library.

Ronald MacLeod (White Rock), unpublished memoirs, sent by email, courtesy of the author.

Helen Malon, diary 1912 – 1919, courtesy of Joan (Malon) Nicholson and Colin Nicholson.

Robert Marshall, “Rowland Egerton Brinckman 1894-1936. A brief summary of his life2012,” unpublished document, 2 pages, courtesy of Ronald MacLeod.

“Harold Monks: Bachelor on the West Coast 1914-1934,” unpublished document, 2011, courtesy of Stephanie Warner.

“The Canadian Pocket Diary, written by Harold Monks, 1920, annotated by Stephanie Ann Warner 2011,” unpublished document, courtesy of Stephanie Warner.

Charles Morin, “The Story of a Courageous Man: The Diary of Charles Morin,” selected pages from unpublished memoirs, courtesy of Ray Deschesnes.

Alan Pineo, unpublished memoirs of living in Stubbs Island and in Tofino,1980s, courtesy of Alan Pineo.

Marguerite Robertson, transcript of interview with Adrienne Mason, October 2008, courtesy of Adrienne Mason

“Tofino’s First Hospital,” Marguerite Robertson (as told to Janet Robertson), paper prepared for the 75th anniversary of the Tofino Hospital, October 1, 2010, courtesy of Adrienne Mason.

Notes and working scripts from CBC television reports on the Clayoquot protests, summer 1993, courtesy of Eve Savory.

Tatsuo Sakauye, personal letters, courtesy of Dorothy Arnet.

Tatsuo Sakauye. “The life and times of Tats Sakauye,” recollections printed in a United Church Newsletter, name of church unknown, Toronto: Winter 2002 and Spring 2003. Courtesy of Dorothy Arnet.

Lists and descriptions of all boats built at Wingen Shipyard, courtesy of Bob Wingen.

Postal information and details of post offices in Clayoquot Sound comes from information provided by David Klus, Tim Woodland and Leona Taylor, also from Margaret Horsfield’s Voices from the Sound and Cougar Annie’s Garden.


Municipal Sources

Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District office, Port Alberni. Documents concerning land transactions on Stubbs Island and Wickaninnish Island, including correspondence, plans, publicity brochures, newspaper articles, planning reports.

Tofino Board of Trade. Minutes, from 1929 onward. Tofino Municipal Office.

Tofino Village Council. Minutes, from 1932 onward. Tofino Municipal Office.


Archival Sources

Mount Angel Abbey Archives, Mount Angel Abbey, Oregon:

Brabant, Father Augustin. Letters to Father Maurus Snyder, located in Father Maurus’s personal papers.

Moser, Father Charles. Diary 1900-1930. The Mount Angel Abbey Archives holds the 1200 page handwritten transcription made by Father Charles from his original diaries. Only a few of the original diaries survive. Throughout this book, the handwritten transcription of the diary is quoted. (NB: A typewritten, edited version of Father Charles’s diary is located in the BC Archives. MS 2172. For more details about Father Charles’s diary and its different versions, see Horsfield, Voices from the Sound.)

Murphy, August. “The Story of August Murphy,” unpublished memoir, 8 pages, located in Father Maurus Snyder’s papers.

Snyder, Father Maurus. Letters and personal papers including a variety of documents, all uncatalogued. These include unpublished scraps of memoir, half-finished articles, letters from children at Christie School, from graduates of the school, from fellow priests and missionaries on the west coast, from Benedictine Sisters at Christie School, from Father Brabant.

Queen of Angels Monastery Archives, Mount Angel, Oregon:

A wide collection of papers, letters and photographs held by the Benedictine Sisters at the Queen of Angels Monastery in Mount Angel, Oregon, provides detailed information about their work at Christie School from 1900 onward.

Library and Archives Canada:

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. RG 10 collection, Finding Aid 10-17. Library and Archives Canada (Ottawa.) Volumes 6430, 6431, 6439, 6441 all contain valuable information about Christie School and/or the Ahousaht Presbyterian school. This material is scattered through many different files.

See particularly the following:

“West Coast Agency – Christie Residential School – General Administration, 1911 – 1930.” RG10, vol 6439, File 879, part 1.

For reports of deaths at the Ahousat Residential school; correspondence from Billy August and others Ahousaht leaders: RG 10 Vol. 6430 File 876-1 part one.

For Gerald Barry reports, Inspector of Indian Schools BC: RG 10 Volume 6431 File 876-6 and RG 10 Volume 6431 File 877-1 part 2.

For Martin Benson’s letter, November 29, 1901, to “The Secretary” opposing establishment of Ahousat residential school: RG10 Vol. 6431 File 876-6 part one.

For information on Christie School in the 1930s and 1940s: RG10 Vol. 6439 File 879-1 part two.

For reports of deaths at Christie School (1930s): RG10 Volume 6441 file 879-23 part one.

For correspondence regarding Christie School relocating to Tofino RCAF air base in 1945: RG10 Volume 6439 File 879-1 part 2.

British Columbia Archives:

BC Department of Education: Annual Reports of Public Schools.

BC Department of Mines, Annual Reports. Sessional Papers, D-24, D-25.
See also:

BC Provincial Police List, compiled by Leona Taylor, from GR 55, Vol. 80

BC Provincial Police Force records, 1899 – 1927. GR-0093

Bossin, Bob. Tape recorded interviews with many west coast residents for Tofino-Clayoquot oral history collection. T3078:0001 to T3087:0001; also T3878:0001 to T3878:0089 Recordings made 1978 – 80 as research for Bossin's book Settling Clayoquot, Sound Heritage Series no. 33, 1981.

Brabant, Father Augustin. Letters and Papers, MS 2742.

Brabant, Father Augustin. Miscellaneous Papers, E/D/B72.4A.

Canadian Censuses of 1891, 1911, 1921. Later population data for Tofino and area from Statistics Canada, Vancouver.

Crown Land Pre-Emption Records, GR-0112, Vol. 232. Also from Leona Taylor’s detailed transcription of pre-emptions in the Clayoquot Sound area, based on these original records.

Dawley, Walter. Papers, MS 1076 and MS 2430.

Earl Marsh Collection, Accession 93-7330. (uncatalogued collection of documents and photographs concerning British Columbia Coast Steamship Service, Canadian Pacific Navigation Company and Canadian Pacific steamships)

MacLeod, Alexander, Diary of Coxswain at Clayoquot Lifesaving Station, 1927 - 1952. BC Archives, MS0196.

Ricketts, Edward. “Transcript of summer 1945 and 1946 notes based on trips to the outer shores, West Coast Vancouver Island, Queen Charlottes etc.” MS 2634.

Garrard, Frank (Francis). Papers. MS 46. (These papers provide one version of Garrard’s memoirs. A slightly different version of these memoirs is held by Pacific Rim National Park Reserve’s Historic Manuscript Collection.)

Lemmens, Bishop Jean. Diary from Kyuquot Sound, 1883-1886. MS-2742, Reel A 1677, Item 2.

Longstaff, Frederick. Papers. MS 46.

Nokamis, Chief. Letters to the Attorney General, GR 0429, Box 6, Attorney General inbound letters.

Ross , John Telford. Manuscripts: Microfilm Reel 480A

Sloman, Alma. 1966. Interview by Imbert Orchard. Tape recording. TO863:0001

Spain, Frederick Stanley. Letters to the Attorney General, GR 0429, Box 6, Attorney General inbound letters.

Vancouver Island Development League papers and brochures, GR 0157. For more on the development league see also MSS 783, containing J.W. Coburn’s article “Vancouver Island: The Work of the Development League,” Victoria Daily Colonist, October 22, 1910; “Closing Scenes at The Alberni Convention”, unknown newspaper, Nanaimo, July 17, 1910.

Other Archives:

Bennet (Stone), Gwendolen. Interview with Steve Suddes, 1983, Pacific Rim National Park Reserve Archives.

Brodie, H. Report on the Princess Maquinna, 1918. Wally Chung Collection. UBC Library, Special Collections (Vancouver), Cat. Number 18823

Ian McTaggart-Cowan, "Notes Tofino, Alberni, Chezazut," 1930, unpublished journal, McTaggart Cowan Fond, University of Victoria Special Collections [to be in place 2015.]

Insulis Quae Procul Sunt, compiled by the family of Father (later Bishop) Jean Lemmens, from his letters. Date unknown. Translated from Dutch by Mr. de Zwager. Archives of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Victoria.

McIver, Vera. Bishop John Charles Seghers 1839 – 1886: The Roots of the Church on Vancouver Island, unpublished paper prepared for and held in the Archives of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Victoria.

Letters of Father Fred Miller describing Hesquiat, dated 1957 and 1959, Archives of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Victoria

Thornberg, Fred. Memoirs. Alberni District Historical Society Archives.

T.S. Gore’s field notes, along with early survey maps, townsite plans, pre-emption maps. Surveyor General Division, Land Title and Survey Authority of British Columbia, Victoria, BC

Whyte, Catharine and Peter. Letters during their years in Tofino during World War ll. Archives of the Whyte Museum of the Canadian Rockies, Peter and Catharine Whyte Sous-Fonds

For details of expropriations of land, early 1970s, Pacific Rim National Park Reserve Archives


Journals and Newspapers

British Colonist and Victoria Daily Colonist. See Victoria’s Victoria website, for access to online British Colonist (from 1859) and to Victoria Daily Colonist (from 1910) See also: Taylor, Leona and Dorothy Mindenhall. Index of Historical Victoria newspapers, Victoria’s Victoria. 2007.

Ha-shilth-sa newspaper. Back issues from the 1980s, incomplete collection. Courtesy of Adrienne Mason. For online access to current editions and to some archival material:

Island Events Magazine, copies of several issues from 1947 and 1948, Victoria, courtesy of Fran Aitkens. Daphne Gibson scrapbooks also contain a number of articles from Island Events Magazine.

The Ranger. “Stand Down Edition.” Periodical published by the Pacific Coast Militia Rangers. October 1945. Courtesy of Ken Gibson.

The Sound, published, edited and partly written by Frank Harper. Tofino. Incomplete collection of copies from 1991 – 1999, courtesy of Adrienne Mason.

Tofino Echo , April 1984. Single back issue. Tofino. Courtesy of Adrienne Mason.

Tofino Time. Numerous back issues from early 2000s onward.

West Coast Journal, The Westerly, Westerly News. Weekly newspapers. Ucluelet/Tofino. Incomplete collection,1983 – 1999, courtesy of Adrienne Mason.

West Coast Advocate. Collection of clippings of “Tofino News” columns and other articles about Tofino, 1939 – 1957, courtesy of Adrienne Mason.

Many articles have been consulted from the following Port Alberni newspapers, accessed at the archive of the Alberni Valley Museum, with the assistance of the Alberni District Historical Society: Port Alberni News (1912-1935); West Coast Advocate ( 1931-1967); Alberni Valley Times (Oct 1967 onward).



Gosnell’s Digital Yearbook of British Columbia and Manual of Provincial Information 1900 – 2001.

Henderson’s British Columbia Gazetteer and Directory. Vancouver: Henderson Publishing Co., 1897 – 1905, 1910.

Henderson’s Greater Victoria City and Vancouver Island gazetteer and directory. Vancouver: Henderson Publishing Co., 1910 – 1911.

Henderson’s BC Gazetteer and Directory's_BC_Gazetteer_and_Directory

Wrigley’s Official BC Directories Vancouver: Wrigley Directories, 1918, 1919, 1928, 1930.'s_British_Columbia_Directory

William’s Illustrated Official BC Directory Parts One and Two



This list contains only some of the hundreds of articles consulted. If dates and titles of articles appear within the text of the book, or in the Notes on Sources, they are not repeated here.

Arnet, Dorothy. “Early Clayoquot Sound Fishing Vessels,” Western Mariner, October 2009.

Arnet, Edward. “Alma Sloman: Kind and Compassionate,” The Sound, November 18 to December 2, 1994.

Ayukawa, Midge, with Edward Arnet. “Early Japanese Canadian Community in Tofino,” Nikkei Images, Vol. 7, No 4, Winter 2002.

Banfield, William E. A series of eight articles about Vancouver Island’s west coast. Daily Victoria Gazette, August 12 – September 17, 1858. Reprinted by the Alberni Valley Times, February 1984.

Banks, Doug. “Fish Haul: Sea-Air-Pac,” West Coast Aviator Magazine, March-April 1998.

Bland, Richard L. and Ann G. Simonds, “Phillip Jacobsen in British Columbia,” British Columbia Historical News, Volume 37, Number 2, Spring 2004.

Brabant, Father Augustin. “Hesquiaht Mission,” American College Bulletin, July(?) 1893. From the archives of the Roman Catholic Diocese in Victoria.

Brabant, Father Augustin. “Hesquiaht Mission,” American College Bulletin, July 1903. From the archives of the Roman Catholic Diocese in Victoria.

Brown, Nancy. “Last Residential School Closes for Good Today on Island’s West Coast,” Victoria Daily Colonist, June 20, 1971.

Buskard, Adam. “The Tofino Legion,” Tofino Time, date unknown.

Clark, Cecil, “Oldtimer Recalls Shipwreck and Amazing Castaway,” Vancouver Sun, date unknown, 1951?; “West Coast Castaway Abandoned Hope of Help,” Victoria Daily Colonist, December 1, 1957.

Gisborne, Jack, “Homais Cove,” Pacific Yachting, August 1998.

Gough, Barry. “Possessing Meares Island,” Journal of Canadian Studies, Vol.33, No. 2, 1998.

Griffiths, David W. “The Wreck of the Favorite.” Tofino Time, April, 2008.

Guppy, Walter. “Hike to Promote West Coast Road,” Victoria Daily Colonist, July 27, 1975.

“Gust of Wind,” Westerly News, April 9, 1997.

Hardy, Mary. “Christmastime in Tofino in the 1930s,” The Sound, undated article, mid 1990s?

Hamilton, Douglas, “The Great Pox,” Raincoast Chronicles #17, Harbour Publishing, 1996.

Hamilton, Douglas. “Who Shot Estevan Light? – A Traditionalist Returns Fire,” Raincoast Chronicles #18, Harbour Publishing, 1997.

Hamilton, Jim. “The Traders’ Route,” two-part series, Victoria Daily Colonist, April 18 & 25 1971.

Hammer, Les. “Trader Thornberg of Clayoquot,” three-part series, Victoria Daily Colonist, June/July Sunday editions, 1974.

Hammond, Terry. “Ahousaht,” Victoria Daily Colonist, April 3, 1964.

Hawker, Ronald W. “The Johnson Street Gang: British Columbia’s Early Indian Art Dealers,” BC Historical News, Vol.22. No.1, 1989.

Hume, Stephen. “Titanic Disasters, Selective Memories.” Vancouver Sun, April 25, 2012.

Hutchison, Pat. “Census Taking at Wreck Bay, May-June 1971,” Cedar Bark and Sea: A Glance through Tofino-Ucluelet and surrounding area. Ucluelet Recreation Commission. Port Alberni, BC, Printed by Coast Printers, undated, 1974?

“Indian Children Give Up Their School in the Forest,” Vancouver Sun, June 15, 1971.

Jackson, Gertrude. “Plea for Extension of West Coast Road from Sproat Lake to Tofino,” Victoria Daily Colonist, December 1, 1929.

Kelley, Frank, “Coast Trip Pleasant in Old Days,” Victoria Daily Colonist, October 9, 1955.

Kelley, Frank, “Nesika Illahee (Our Land)” twelve-part series, Victoria Daily Colonist Magazine, February 25 to late August 1951.

Knox, J. Ronald. “The Investigation of Fort Defiance: A Report on Preliminary Investigations,” BC Studies, No. 16, Winter 1972.

Kondo, Christine. Nikkei Fisherman Tohachiro ‘Toki’ Kondo,” Nikkei Images, Family History Series No. 9, Vol. 13. Vancouver, Summer 2008.

Lane, Patrick. “The Great Pacific Seal Hunt.” Raincoast Chronicles #4, Harbour Publishing, 1974.

Ludwin, Ruth S,, “Dating the 1700 Cascadia Earthquake: Great Coastal Earthquakes in Native Stories,” Seismology Research Letters, Vol. 76, No. 2, March/April 2005.

McKelvie, B.A. “Tales of Conflict,” Victoria Times Colonist, date unknown, 1985.

Mackie, Richard. “The Short, Happy Life and Sad Death of Fred Tibbs,” The Beaver, February/March 1991.

MacLeod, Islay, “When Time Stopped,” The Sound, November 30, 1990, reprinted in News Around Clayoquot Sound: Being an Anthology of Some of the Best Beloved Blasts from The Sound Newspaper 1990-1991.

Madokoro, Dennis. “Mary Miki Madokoro (nee Kimoto)” Parts 1 – 3, Family History Series No. 7, Nikkei Images, Summer, Autumn and Winter 2007.

Madokoro, Dennis. “Yoshio Johnny Madokoro” Parts 1 – 3, Family History Series No. 5, Nikkei Images, Spring, Summer and Winter 2006.

Maiden, Cecil. “The Other Side of the Island,” twenty-part series, Victoria Daily Colonist, November 10, 1950 to March 24, 1951.

Maekawa, Larry. “Mrs Okada’s Kamaboko Factory on Clayoquot Island,” Nikkei Images. Vancouver, Winter 2001.

Mallin, Lorne, “Our Surf’s Up!,” Vancouver Sun, Friday June 10, 1966, p. 5.

Mason, Adrienne, “What’s in a Name?” series of articles, Tofino Time, published between 2002 – 2013. Articles include: “The Crab Dock”, “Arnet Island”, “Grant”, “Stubbs Island”, “Neilson (Bond) Island”, “Chesterman Beach”, “Monks Islet”, “Meares Island”, “Abraham Drive”, “Captain Tofino and how we got his name”, “John Leighton”, “Sloman Island”, “Incinerator Rock and Lovekin Rock”, “Strawberry Island”, “Vargas Island”, “Wickaninnish Bay and Island”, “Grice Road, Point and Bay”, “Thornberg Crescent”, “Fred Tibbs”, “Lennard Island”, “Gibson Street”, “Maltby Road, Islets and Slough”, “The MacLeods of Tofino”

Mathes, Valerie Sherer, “Wickaninnish, A Clayoquot Chief, as Recorded by Early Travelers.” Pacific Northwest Quarterly, Vol.70, No.3, 1979.

Mitchell, H. Donald. “The Investigation of Fort Defiance: Verification of the Site,” BC Studies, No. 4, Spring 1970.

Moore, Bill. “The Forest around Us,” British Columbia Lumberman, June 1977.

Nicholson, George. Many articles about the west coast of Vancouver Island, Victoria Daily Colonist, 1951 – 1969. These include: “SS Princess Maquinna: Friend of the Up-Islanders,” October 21, 1951; “New Hospital at Tofino,” April 4, 1954; “Makeshift Aid Was Lifesaver in Earlier Days,” May 8, 1955; “He Kept Up With Times [about Kelsemaht fisherman George Sye,]” May 13, 1956; “The Promised Road to the West Coast,” two-part series, August 23, 1959 and October 11, 1959; “Tragedy Came in the Wake of First Explorers,” date unknown; “Chief Joseph of the Clayoquots: Amongst the West Coast Indians, His Word was Law,” February 4, 1962; “Gallant Old Maquinna: Her Glorious Memories,” July 8, 1962; “The Ladies Leave Romantic Island,” November 1, 1964; “Estevan Point Has Own Spot in Canadian History; September 18, 1966; “Landing of Capt. James Cook,” August 18, 1968; “Prized BC Sea Otter Pelts Sought By Chinese Mandarins,” September 21, 1969; “From Nootka to San Juan Graveyard of the Pacific,” October 12, 1969.

Nicolaye, the Very Rev. J. “Reminiscences of Early Days on Vancouver Island,” Historical Number of British Columbia Orphan’s Friend, undated. In the archives of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Victoria.

Peck, Donald.The Gumboot Navy,” Raincoast Chronicles #7, Harbour Publishing, 1977.

Pitkethley, A.W.E., Manager, Hospital Construction Division. “A Story of Courage and Tenacity,” name of journal unknown, obscured by photocopy quality, six pages, November 1955. Courtesy of Adrienne Mason.

“Rev. Rather Charles Moser of West Coast Fame Is to Leave After Long Service,” Victoria Daily Colonist, January 7, 1930.

Ritchie, Leanne. “Tofino Lifeboats, Then and Now,” Westerly News, June 21, 2000.

Scott, Bruce. “Garrard of Tofino,” Victoria Daily Colonist, July 21, 1974.

Smith, George. “Reminiscences of an Old Surveyor,” The Link, Volume 11, No. 4, January 1989.

Smith, J. Gordon. “Skundo, The Outcast,” Victoria Daily Colonist, September 25, 1910.

Sproule-Jones, Megan. “Crusading for the Forgotten: Dr. Peter Bryce, Public Health, and Prairie Native Residential Schools,” Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Vol. 13, 1996.

Stefanick, Lorna., “Baby Stumpy and the War in the Woods: Competing frames for British Columbia Forests,” BC Studies, No. 130, Summer 2001.

Struthers, Andrew. “As the Lady Vanishes: Tales of the MV Loch Ryan,” Victoria Times Colonist, September 2001.

Terhaar, Anthony, OSB. “Romance of the Missions,” a series of articles about the west coast missions, St. Joseph Magazine, January to July 1940.

Tonkin, Doris Farmer. “King of Dream Isle Castle,” Victoria Daily Colonist, November 5, 1972.

“Vast Areas Staked as Timber Limits,” Victoria Daily Times, May 29, 1907.

“When Fashion Calls for Sealskin Coats West Coast Indians Cash-In on Monopoly,” Victoria Daily Times, December 4, 1926 (interview with James Sloman).

Wills, Archie. “In the Days of Sealing,” Victoria Daily Colonist, June 28, 1970.

Wills, Archie. “Broken by Graveyard Reefs: Last of the Windjammer Era,” Victoria Daily Colonist, December 12, 1976.

Wills, Archie, “West Coast’s Best Friend Died on World’s Worst Run,” Victoria Daily Colonist, March 13, 1977.

Wills, Archie. “Worst Run in the World,” Victoria Daily Colonist, December 19, 1976.

Conflict with the Indians of Vancouver IslandIllustrated London News, Issue 1295; Saturday December 31, 1864, p. 664.

“Alma Sloman.” Alberni Valley Times, August 31, 1976.



Arbour, Daniel, Brenda Kuecks, and Danielle Edwards, eds. Nuu-chah-nulth Central Region First Nations Governance Structures 2007/2008. Vancouver: Ecotrust Canada, September 2008. See online at

Bouchard, Randy and Dorothy Kennedy. Clayoquot Sound Indian Land Use. Prepared for MacMillan-Bloedel, Fletcher Challenge, and the BC Ministry of Forests. BC Indian Language Project, November 1990.

Scientific Panel for Sustainable Forest Practices in Clayoquot Sound. First Nations’ Perspectives Relating to Forest Practices Standards in Clayoquot Sound: Appendices V and VI. Victoria: Cortex Consultants Inc., March 1995.

Mychajlowycz, Maryjka. Overview of Logging in Clayoquot Sound: 2000-2009. Prepared for Terrestrial Committee, Clayoquot Biosphere Trust. Friends of Clayoquot Sound, November 2009.


Theses and Papers

Crockford, Cairn Elizabeth. Nuu-Chah-Nulth Relations in the Pelagic Sealing Industry, 1868 – 1911. MA thesis, University of Victoria, Department of History, 1996.

Eckerstorfer, Andreas. To Do Some Good among the Indians. MA Thesis. Theological Faculty of Mount Angel Seminary, Oregon. 1994. Courtesy of Queen of Angel’s Monastery.

Galland, Daniel. The history and evolution of salmon aquaculture siting policy in British Columbia. MSc Thesis. UBC. 2004.

Goad, Jennifer. Land Use Practices in Clayoquot Sound: An Assessment of Success of the 1993 Protest. Geography 490. University of Victoria, 2007.

Mercer, Lisa. Identities, Lifestyles and Brand Marketing in Canadian Women’s Surfing: An Ethnographic Study. MA thesis. UBC. 2006.

Welk, Elizabeth. The Evolution of a Coastal Community: Power Relations and Tourism in Tofino, British Columbia. MA thesis. Department of Geography, Simon Fraser University, 2006.

Mann, Michaela, Killoran. ‘Clearcut’ Conflict: Clayoquot Sound Campaign and the Moral Imagination. MA Thesis. Department of Conflict Studies, Faculty of Humanities, Université Saint Paul, Ottawa, 2013.



Abraham, Dorothy. Lone Cone: A Journal of Life on the West Coast of Vancouver Island, BC. Victoria: privately printed, 1945.

Adachi, Ken. The Enemy that Never Was: A History of Japanese Canadians. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1976.

Akrigg, G.P.V. and Helen B. Akrigg. British Columbia Chronicle 1778-1846. Adventures by Land and Sea. Victoria: Discovery Press, 1975.

Andersen, Marnie. Women of the West Coast: Stories of Clayoquot Sound, Then and Now. Sydney: Sand Dollar Press, 2004.

Arima, E.Y. The West Coast (Nootka) People. Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Museum Special Publication No. 6., 1983.

Arima, Eugene and Alan Hoover. The Whaling People of the West Coast of Vancouver Island and Cape Flattery. Victoria: Royal BC Museum, 2011.

Atwater, Brian F. The Orphan Tsunami of 1700. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

Atleo, E. Richard (Umeek). Tsawalk: A Nuu-chah-nulth Worldview. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2004.

Bailey, Richard James. Transition in Tofino and Ucluelet Using Indicators to Become More Sustainable. MA Thesis, UBC, 2001.

Barrett-Lennard, Charles Edward, Travels in British Columbia with a Narrative of a Yacht Voyage around Vancouver’s Island. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1862.

Banfill, Nurse B.J., With the Indians of the Pacific. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1966.

Barman, Jean. The West beyond the West: A History of British Columbia. 1991. Revised edition, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

Bawlf, Samuel. The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 2002.

Berman, Tzeporah; Hatch, Ronald and Veronica, et al., Clayoquot and Dissent. Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 1994.

Berman, Tzeporah. This Crazy Time: Living our Environmental Challenge. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 2011.

Bossin, Bob. Settling Clayoquot. Sound Heritage Series #33. Victoria: Sound and Moving Image Division, BC Provincial Archives, 1981.

Boyd, Robert. The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence: Introduced Infectious Diseases and Population Decline among Northwest Coast Indians 1774–1874. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999.

Breen-Needham, Howard Witness to Wilderness. Vancouver: Arsenal, 1994.

Bridge, Kathryn. Extraordinary Accounts of Native Life on the West Coast. Canmore: Altitude Publishing, 2004.

Brubacher, J., C. Cunningham, et al. The Sound Anthology: News around Clayoquot Sound, Being an Anthology of Some of the Best-Beloved Blasts from The Sound Newspaper. Tofino. BC: The Sound Magazine: 1997.

Bryce, P.H. The Story of a National Crime, being an Appeal for Justice to the Indians of Canada. Ottawa: James Hope and Sons Ltd, 1922.

Busch, Briton Cooper. The War Against the Seals: A History of the North American Seal Fishery. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1985.

Cail, Robert E. Land, Man, and the Law: The Disposal of Crown Lands in British Columbia, 1871 – 1913. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1974.

Campbell, K. Mack. Cannery Village: Company Town: A History of British Columbia’s Outlying Salmon Canneries. Victoria: Trafford Publishing, 2004.

Cannings, Richard and Sydney Cannings. British Columbia: A Natural History. Vancouver: Greystone Books, 1966.

Carmichael, Alfred. Indian Legends of Vancouver Island. Toronto: Musson Book Co, 1925.

Cedar Bark and Sea—A Glance through the Tofino-Ucluelet Area. Compiled by Ucluelet Recreation Commission. Port Alberni: Coast Printers. Undated, 1974? (An earlier version of this booklet contains much but not all of the same material, entitled A Glance through the Tofino-Ucluelet Area. Undated, 1969-70?)

Clayton, Daniel W. Islands of Truth: The Imperial Fashioning of Vancouver Island. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2000.

Cole, Douglas and Ira Chaikin. An Iron Hand Upon the People: The Law Against the Potlatch on the Northwest Coast. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 1990.

Cole, Douglas. Captured Heritage: The Scramble for Northwest Coast Artifacts, Vancouver/Toronto: Douglas and McIntyre, 1985.

Connors D., and L. Miller. Master Mariner – Captain James Cook and the People of the Pacific. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 1978.

Coyle, Brendan. War On Our Doorstep: The Unknown Campaign on North America’s West Coast. Surrey: Heritage House, 2002.

Coyle, Brendan and Melanie Arnis. Enemy Offshore! Japan's secret war on North America's West Coast. Surrey, BC: Heritage House. 2013.

Crosson, Jack. Jack’s Shack. Victoria: Currie’s Forest Graphics, 1990.

Cummins, Phil R., Laura S.L. Kong and Kenji Satake. Tsunami Science Four Years After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Part II. Basel, Boston, Berlin: Birkhauser Verlag AG, 2009.

Dixon, Captain George. A voyage round the world but more particularly to the north-west coast of America: performed in 1785, 1786, 1787, and 1788, in the King George and Queen Charlotte, Captains Portlock and Dixon. London: G. Goulding, 1789.

Dorricott, Linda and Cullen, Deidre, eds. The Private Journal of Captain G.H. Richards: The Vancouver Island Survey (1860 – 1862), Ronsdale Press, Vancouver, 2012.

Drucker, Philip. Indians of the Northwest Coast. New York: The Natural History Press, 1963.

Drucker, Philip. The Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 144, United States Government Printing Office: Washington, 1951.

Duff, Wilson. The Indian History of British Columbia Vol. 1. Victoria: Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology, 1965.

Eaton, Diane, and Allison Eaton. Exploring the BC Coast by Car. Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1999.

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Hill, Beth. The Remarkable World of Frances Barkley: 1769-1845. Sidney, BC: Gray’s Publishing, 1978.

Holland, Stuart S. Landforms of British Columbia: A Physiographic Outline. Victoria: BC Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1976.

Horsfield, Margaret. Cougar Annie’s Garden. Nanaimo, BC: Salal Books, 1999.

Horsfield, Margaret. Voices from the Sound: Chronicles of Clayoquot Sound and Tofino 1899 – 1929. Nanaimo, BC: Salal Books, 2008.

Howay, F.W., ed. The Journal of Captain James Colnett aboard the Argonaut from April 26, 1789 to November 3, 1791. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1940.

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Inglis, Robin. The Lost Voyage of La Pérouse. Vancouver: Vancouver Maritime Museum, 1986.

Jewitt, John. White Slaves of Maquinna. Surrey, BC: Heritage House, 2000.

Jewitt, John. White Slaves of the Nootka: Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Jewitt while a Captive of the Nootka Indians on Vancouver Island 1803-05. Surrey,BC: Heritage House, 1987.

Johnson, Peter. Glyphs and Gallows: The Rock Art of Clo-oose and the Wreck of the John Bright. Surrey, BC: Heritage House, 1999.

Jones, Laurie. Nootka Sound Explored: A West Coast History. Campbell River, BC: Ptarmigan Press, 1991.

Kahn, Lloyd. Builders of the Pacific Coast. Bolinas, California: Shelter Publications, 2008.

Ka Ka Wis Family Development Centre. Healing Journeys: The Ka Ka Wis Experience, 1974 – 1994. Victoria: privately printed, June 1994.

Kelm, Mary-Ellen. Colonizing Bodies: Aboriginal Health and Healing in British Columbia, 1900-1950. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1998.

Kew, D. & Goddard, P.E. Indian Art and Culture of the Northwest Coast. Surrey, BC: Hancock House, 1997.

Kopas, Cliff. Bella Coola. Vancouver: Tenas Tiktik Publishing, 1970.

Krawczyk, Betty Shiver. Clayoquot: The Sound of My Heart. Victoria: Orca, 1996.

Lascelles, Thomas A. O.M.I. Roman Catholic Indian Residential Schools in British Columbia. Vancouver: privately printed, 1990.

Laut, Agnes C. Pioneers of the Pacific Coast: a Chronicle of Sea Rovers and Fur Hunters. Toronto: Touchwood, 2011.

Layland, Michael. The Land of Heart’s Delight: Early maps and charts of Vancouver Island. Victoria: Touchwood, 2013.

Lillard, Charles. Seven Shillings a Year: The History of Vancouver Island. Ganges, BC: Horsdal and Schubart, 1993.

Lillard, Charles. Mission to Nootka 1874 – 1900: Reminiscences of the West Coast of Vancouver Island. Sidney, BC: Gray’s Publishing, 1977.

Ludvigsen, Rolf and Graham Beard. West Coast Fossils: A guide to the Ancient Life of Vancouver Island. Vancouver: Whitecap, 1994.

Lyons, Chess P. Milestones on Vancouver Island. Victoria: Evergreen Press, 1958.

Lowther, Christine and Anita Sinner, editors and contributors. Writing the West Coast: In Love with Place. Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 2008.

McDiarmid, Howard. Pacific Rim Park: A Country Doctor’s Role in Preserving Long Beach and Establishing the New Wickaninnish Inn. Victoria: privately printed, Desktop Publishing, 2009.

McDowell, Jim. Father August Brabant: Saviour or Scourge? Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 2012.

McFadden, Isobel. Living by Bells: A narrative of Five schools in British Columbia 1874 – 1970. Vancouver: Committee on Education for Mission and Stewardship, United Church of Canada. January 1971.

MacGillivray, Don. Captain Alex MacLean: Jack London’s Sea Wolf. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2008.

MacIsaac, R. and A. Champagne, eds. Clayoquot Mass Trials: Defending the Rainforest. Gabriola Island BC: New Society Publishers, 1994.

McKee, Christopher. Treaty Talks in British Columbia: Negotiating a Mutually Beneficial Future. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2000.

McKelvie, B A. Tales of Conflict: Indian-White Murders and Massacres in British Columbia. Surrey, BC: Heritage House, 1985.

McKervill Hugh W. The Salmon People. Sidney BC: Gray’s Publishing Ltd., 1967.

MacKenzie, Doris. Memories of a West Coast Life: Through the years 1929 – 2009. Privately printed in Canada: First Choice Books, 2009.

McMillan, Alan D. Since the Time of the Transformers: The Ancient Heritage of the Nuu-chah-nulth, Ditidaht, and Makah. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1999.

McNally, Vincent J. The Lord’s Distant Vineyard: A History of the Oblates and the Catholic Community in British Columbia. University of Alberta Press: 2000.

Mackie, Richard. Island Timber. Victoria: Sono Nis Press, 2000.

Mackie, Richard. Mountain Timber. Winlaw: Sono Nis Press, 2009.

Mackie, Richard and Graeme Wynn, eds. Home Truths: Highlights from BC History. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2012.

Magnussen, Warren and Karena Shaw, Eds. A Political Space: Reading the Global through Clayoquot Sound. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002.

Mason, Adrienne. Eighteen Meditations on Chesterman Beach. Tofino, BC: Postelsia Press, 2011

Mason, Adrienne. Historic Tofino: A Walking Tour. Tofino, BC: Postelsia Press, 2012.

Mason, Adrienne. St. Columba 1913 – 2013: A Century of Service. Tofino, BC: privately printed by the Anglican Church Women of St. Columba’s Church. 2013.

Mason, Adrienne. Long Beach Wild: A Celebration of People and Place on Canada’s Rugged Western Shore. Vancouver: Greystone Books, 2012.

Mason, Adrienne. Tales From the West Coast: Smugglers, Sea Monsters and Other Stories. Canmore, Alberta: Altitude Publishing, 2003.

Meggs, Geoff. Salmon: The Decline of the British Columbia Fishery. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 1991.

Menzies, Gavin. 1421: The Year China Discovered America. London: Harper Collins, 2003.

Milloy, John S. “A National Crime” The Canadian Government and the Residential School System, 1876 – 1986. University of Manitoba Press: 1999.

Miller, J.R. Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Native Residential Schools. University of Toronto Press: 1996.

Moser, Rev. Charles OSB. Reminiscences of the West Coast of Vancouver Island. Victoria: Acme Press, 1926.

Muckle, Robert J. The First Nations of British Columbia. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1998.

Murray, Peter. The Vagabond Fleet: A Chronicle of the North Pacific Sealing Schooner Trade. Victoria: Sono Nis Press, 1988.

Newell, Dianne, Tangled Webs of History: Indians and the Law in Canada’s Pacific Coast Fisheries. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, 1993.

Nicholson, George. Vancouver Island’s West Coast 1762-1962. Victoria: George Nicholson, 1965.

Nuu-chah-nulth Phrase Book and Dictionary: Barkley Sound Dialect, introduction by Ki-ke-in (Ron Hamilton). Bamfield, BC: Barkley Sound Dialect Working Group, 2004.

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Palmer, Tim. Pacific High: Adventures in the Coast Range from Baja to Alaska. Washington DC: Island Press, 2002.

Paterson, T.W. and Basque, Garnet. Ghost Towns and Mining Camps of Vancouver Island. Surrey, BC: Heritage House, 2006.

Paton, Brian. Long Beach, Clayoquot and Beyond. Vancouver: Raincoast Books, 1997.

Peterson, Jan. Journeys: Down the Alberni Canal to Barkley Sound. Lantzville, BC: Oolichan Books, 1999.

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Reid, Larry L. The Story of the West Coast Radio Service. Chameleon Publishing. Vancouver: 1992.

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Streetly, Joanna. Paddling Through Time: A Kayaking Journey through Clayoquot Sound. Vancouver: Raincoast Books, 2000.

Streetly, Joanna, ed. Salt In Our Blood – An Anthology of Westcoast Moments. Tofino, BC: Aquila Instincts, 2002.

Struthers, Andrew. The Last Voyage of the Loch Ryan. Vancouver: New Star Books, 2004.

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Thompson, Jerry. Cascadia’s Fault. Toronto: Harper Collins, 2011.

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Windh, Jacqueline. The Wild Edge: Clayoquot, Long Beach and Barkley Sound. Pender Harbour, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2004.

Woolford, Andrew. Between Justice and Certainty: Treaty Making in British Columbia. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2005.

Yesaki, Mitsuo. Sutebusuton: A Japanese Village on the British Columbia Coast. Vancouver: Peninsula Publishing Company, 2003.

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Young, David Esson. The Uchuck Years: A West Coast Shipping Saga. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 2012.

Wilson, Jeremy. Talk and Log: Wilderness Politics in British Columbia. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1998.

Wright, E.D., ed. Lewis & Dryden’s Marine History of the Pacific Northwest. Reprint, Seattle: Superior Publishing, 1967. First published 1895.


Online Material

This list is highly selective. See also various entries provided above, especially journals, newspapers and directories.

Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. See particularly

Ahousaht First Nation. Ahousaht First Nation.

BC Department of Mines Annual Reports. For further information about the history of individual mines see and

Boit, John. A New Log of the Columbia.

Bossin, Bob. Bob Bossin: Old folksinger. “The Clayoquot Women.”

Dictionary of Canadian Biography.

Clayoquot Biosphere Trust. Clayoquot Biosphere Trust.

Clayoquot Sound Research Group. A Political Space: Reading the Global through Clayoquot Sound. Archived online by the University of Victoria.

Federal and Provincial Collections of Minutes of Decision, Correspondence and Sketches. Materials produced by the Joint Indian Reserve Commission and Indian Reserve Commission, 1876-1910.

Final Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry on Timber and Forestry 1909-1910.

Friends of Clayoquot Sound. Friends of Clayoquot Sound.

Government of Canada. “First Nations Profiles : Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.

Government of Canada. “Indian Affairs Annual Reports, 1864-1990.” Library and Archives Canada.

Government of Canada. “Schedule of Indian Reserves in the Dominion of Canada Part 2 Reserves in the Province of British Columbia Recompiled and Corrected up to March 31, 1943.” Library and Archives Canada.

Hesquiaht First Nation. Hesquiaht First Nation. See also

Holte, Gary. “Tofino’s Water System History: A Story of Determination.” 1995.

Indian Affairs Annual Reports, 1864 -1990.

McQueen, Ken, “In Conversation: Shawn Atleo,” Macleans. July 20, 2011.

Nikkei National Museum and Cultural Centre. “Nikkei Images.” Nikkei National Museum and Cultural Centre.

Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council. Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council.

Province of British Columbia. “Historic Crown Grant Search.” The Province of British Columbia.

Shaw, Dr. Karena. “Encountering Clayoquot, Reading the Political.”

Siney, Rosey. “The Land Use Controversy: How did we get into this Mess?”

Soldiers of the First World War 1914 – 1918. (for attestation papers and other information concerning Canadian soldiers in the First World War.)

Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations. Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations.

Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations. “Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations Newsletter.”

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. “Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada Webcast.” Livestream. For dates and locations ofspecific TRC testimony cited in this book, see Notes on Sources.

Union of BC Indian Chiefs. See particularly the testimony of Nuu-chah-nulth leaders at the McKenna McBride Commission hearings in 1914:

United Church of Canada Archives. “Ahousaht Indian Residential School.” The Children Remembered.

Volpe, John and Shaw, Karena. “Fish Farming and Neoliberalism: Salmon Aquaculture in British Columbia.” 2008.

Westerly News. Westerly News.

Wright, Richard. “We have to turn the page on the past.” Interview with Elsie Robinson. United Church Observer. January 2010.



Tofino: The Road Stops Here. Mary Ungerlieder. 1995.

Fury for the Sound: The Women at Clayoquot. Shelly Wine. 2008.

Save Clayoquot Sound. Craig Delahunt. 1993.

Shockwave: Doc Zone documentary 2009.

Tofino 1976: Rod Langley


Clayoquot Sound Timelines

Friends of Clayoquot Sound. “History.” Friends of Clayoquot Sound.

Iisaak Forest Resources. “Timeline 1978–2008.” Iisaak Forest Resources.

Ross, Andrew. “Clayoquot Sound Chronology.” A Political Space: Reading the Global through Clayoquot Sound. Archived online by the University of Victoria.

Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations. “Towards Resolution of the Land Question for Tla-oqui-aht.” Inside Tla-o-qui-aht 10, no. 2 (September 2008): 12–17.

Union of BC Indian Chiefs. “Historical Timeline: From 1700s to the Present.” Union of BC Indian Chiefs.

United Church of Canada Archives. “Ahousaht IRS Timeline.” The Children Remembered.



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