Medicinal Wild Plants

Arnica

Arnica

Arnica cordifolia, A. angustifolia: Asteraceae family perennial, slender rhizome, erect stem stands 10 – 50 cm high. Leaves opposite, simple, entire or toothed. Yellow flowers with ray petals,...
Bearberry

Bearberry

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi: Ericaceae family perennial, wiry prostrate evergreen shrub, forms large mats that hug the earth. Flower clusters of tiny pinkish-white bells with 10 stamens. Fruit dull red,...
Wild Chamomile

Wild Chamomile

Matricaria discoidea: Asteraceae family annual with many-branched leafy stems, 10 – 30 cm or higher. Leaves highly dissected, fern-like. Flowering heads are yellowy green, numerous, conical, in a...
Bedstraw

Bedstraw

Galium species: Rubiaceae family annual with green whorled leaves on squarish stems. Fragrant flowers in branched cyme clusters; petals are pure white to yellow and hairy. Nutlets come in pairs, 2 mm...
Chickweed

Chickweed

Stellaria media: Caryophyllaceae family annual. Trailing ground cover reaches lengths of 10 – 60 cm. Lower leaves broad, long sparsely hairy petioles; upper leaves smaller and lack petioles. Tiny,...
Red Clover

Red Clover

Trifolium pratense: Fabaceae (pea) family perennial with stems up to 80 cm high, erect or spreading. Three leaflets, oval-elliptic, 2 – 5 cm long; lower leaves, long petioled; upper leaves, short...
Coltsfoot

Coltsfoot

Petasites species: Asteraceae family perennial. Flowers in spring before leaves emerge. Small clustered white flowers on a stalk; seeds have feathery bristles. Stems 10 – 50 cm high; leaves 2 –...
Dandelion

Dandelion

Taraxacum officinale: Asteraceae family perennial with rosette of jagged, irregular-lobed green leaves produced from a long, thick, fleshy taproot. Stem ishollow with a white, latex-like substance....
Goldenrod

Goldenrod

Solidago species: Asteraceae family perennial. Lance-shaped oblong leaves, mustard-yellow ray flowers in clusters on the branch. Stems usually more than 35 cm high, from well-developed rhizomes;...
Devil's Club

Devil's Club

Oplopanax horridus: Araliaceae (ginseng) family perennial. Coarse, scented shrub, 1 – 1.5 m high. Stems densely covered with spines and prickles. Leaves alternate, long-petioled; blades 10 – 30...
Horsetail

Horsetail

Equisetum arvense: Equisetaceae family perennial. Green, jointed stems grow to 50 cm. Three to four angled branches are solid, in whorls at the nodes, spreading upwards. Sheaths at nodes have four to...
Fireweed

Fireweed

Chamerion angustifolium: Onagraceae (evening primrose) family, perennial. Erect fibrous stems up to 1.5 m high, arising from far-reaching horizontal roots. Leaves alternate, lance-shaped, 5 – 20...
Juniper

Juniper

Juniperus communis: Evergreen shrub in Cupressaceae (cypress) family. Needle leaves are awl-shaped, 5 – 20 mm long, crowded in whorls, three along the branch. The mature seed cones are berry-like...
Labrador Tea

Labrador Tea

Rhododendron groenlandicum: Aromatic, erect shrub in Ericaceae (heath) family, 30 – 80 cm high. Leathery leaves 2 – 5 cm long, blunt-tipped, edges curling under. Upper surface of leaves dark...
Lamb's Quarters

Lamb's Quarters

Chenopodium album: Chenopodiaceae family annual, with stems up to 60 cm, erect or ascending, simple to many branched. Leaves 1 – 12 cm long, shaped like goose feet. Flowers clustered along the...
Lungwort

Lungwort

Mertensia paniculata: Boraginaceae (borage) family perennial, with branching erect stems, 20 – 70 cm high. Dark green leaves with rough hairs, broad at the base tapering to a long point; upper...
Mint

Mint

Mentha arvensis: Lamiaceae family perennial, stems singular or branching, to 50 cm high. Leaves 1 – 8 cm long, variously oval-shaped, tapered at both ends, covered with aromatic oil glands, margins...
Stinging Nettle

Stinging Nettle

Urtica dioica: Urticaceae family perennial herb with tough, simple or branched stems, to 1 m or higher. Stinging hairs on the stems and leaves. Leaves coarsely toothed, up to 15 cm long. Small green...
Wild Onion/Chives

Wild Onion/Chives

Allium schoenoprasum: Liliaceae family perennial with flower clusters arising from a leafless stem; underground bulb elongated, egg-shaped with papery skin. Flowering stems are15 – 45 cm high....
Plantain

Plantain

Plantago major: Plantaginaceae family perennial, green leaves elliptic to egg-shaped with prominent parallel veins; margins entire or undulating, 3 – 15 cm long. Flower spikes dense, up to 25 cm...
Raspberry leaf

Raspberry

Rubus idaeus: Rosaceae (rose) family, erect woody shrub, to 1.5 m high, branches covered in prickles; canes biennial, freely branching. Leaves three or five leaflets, double-toothed, green above,...
Rose

Rose

Rosa species: Rosaceae family, low shrub with stems covered in thorns and prickles. Leaves of 3 – 7 leaflets, toothed, with small soft hairs. Fragrant flowers, usually solitary on the stem; petals...
Wild Sage

Wild Sage

Artemisia frigida: Asteraceae family perennial, aromatic, mat-forming with a stout, fibrous and much-branched crown. Leaves crowded, highly dissected, with fine linear divisions, silvery-grey; upper...
Shepherd's Purse

Shepherd's Purse

 Capsella bursa-pastoris: Brassicaceae (cabbage) family winter annual, stems 10 – 50 cm high. Basal rosette of leaves 3 – 20 cm long; stem leaves alternate, small, clasping the stem. Loose flower...
Strawberry Blite

Strawberry Blite

Chenopodium capitatum: Chenopodiaceae family annual, erect stems or ascending, simple or branched, up to 60 cm high. Leaves up to 10 cm long, arrowhead shaped, toothed, long-petioled toward base....
Yarrow

Yarrow

Achillea millefolium: Asteraceae family perennial, stems simple, forked above, 20 – 60 cm high. Green basal leaves, fern-like with long petioles, lower stem leaves with petioles, but middle and...