Chapter Notes


01: The Geology by John Clague
02: The Physical Ocean by Richard Thomson
03: The Biological Ocean by Paul Harrison and Dave Mackas
04: The Invertebrate and Marine Plants by Rick Harbo
05: The Fishes by Richard Beamish
06: The Marine Mammals by Andrew Trites
07: The Coastal Birds by Douglas Bertram
08: The Pre-Contact Era by Terry Glavin
09: The Zone of Encounter by Stewart Muir
10: The History of the Fisheries by Gordon McFarlane and Jacquelynne King

 

01: The Geology by John Clague

Further Reading

Armstrong, J.E., D.R. Crandell, D.J. Easterbrook, and J.B. Noble. 1965. Late Pleistocene stratigraphy and chronology in south-western British Columbia and northwestern Washington. Geological Society of America Bulletin 76:321–330.

Clague, J.J. 1976a. Pleistocene sediments in the northern Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. In: Report of Activities, Part B. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 76-1B:157–160.

___. 1976b. Quadra Sand and its relation to the late Pleistocene geology and geomorphic evolution of southwest British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 3:803–815.

___. 1983. Glacio-isostatic effects of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. In: Shorelines and Isostasy, ed. D.E. Smith and A.G. Dawson. London UK: Academic Press, 321–343.

___. 1989. Cordilleran Ice Sheet. In: Chapter 1 of Quaternary Geology of Canada and Greenland, ed. R.J. Fulton. Geological Survey of Canada, Geology of Canada no. 1 (also Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America K-1): 40–42.

___. 1994. Quaternary stratigraphy and history of south-coastal British Columbia. In: Geology and Geological Hazards of the Vancouver Region, Southwestern British Columbia, ed. J.W.H. Monger. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 471:181–192.

___. 1998. Geological setting of the Fraser River delta. In: Geology and Natural Hazards of the Fraser River Delta, ed. J.J. Clague, J.L. Luternauer, and D.C. Mosher. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 525:7–16.

Clague, J.J., and B.D. Bornhold. 1980. Morphology and littoral processes of the Pacific coast of Canada. In: The Coastline of Canada, ed. S.B. McCann. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80–10:339–380.

Clague, J., and R. Turner. 2003. Vancouver, City on the Edge; Living with a Dynamic Geological Landscape. Vancouver: Tricouni Press.

Clague, J., J.R. Harper, R.J. Hebda, and D.E. Howes. 1982. Late Quaternary sea levels and crustal movements, coastal British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 19:597–618.

Clague, J.J., J.L. Luternauer, and R.J. Hebda. 1983. Sedimentary environments and postglacial history of the Fraser delta and lower Fraser River valley, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 20:1314–1326.

Hamilton, T.S. 1991. Seismic stratigraphy of unconsolidated sediment in the central Strait of Georgia: Hornby Island to Roberts Bank. Geological Survey of Canada Open File 2350, 9 sheets.

Hart, B.S., T.S. Hamilton, J.V. Barrie, and D.B. Prior. 1995. Seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary framework of a deep-water Holocene delta: The Fraser delta, Canada. In: Geology of Deltas, ed. M.N. Oti and G. Postma. A.A. Rotterdam: Balkema, 167–178.

Johnston, W.A. 1923. Geology of the Fraser River delta map area. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 135.

Luternauer, J.L. 1980. Genesis of morphologic features on the western delta front of the Fraser River, British Columbia—status of knowledge. In: The Coastline of Canada, ed. S.B. McCann. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80–10:381–396.

Luternauer, J.L., and J.W. Murray. 1973. Sedimentation on the western delta-front of the Fraser River. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 10:1642–1663.

Luternauer, J.L., J.J. Clague, and C.H. Pharo. 1983. Substrates of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40:1026–1032.

Luternauer, J.L., J.V. Barrie, H.A. Christian, J.J. Clague, R.W. Evoy, B.S. Hart, J.A. Hunter, P.G. Killeen, R.A. Kostaschuk, R.W. Mathewes, P.A. Monahan, T.F. Moslow, C.J. Mwenifumbo, H.W. Olynk, R.T. Patterson, S.E. Pullan, M.C. Roberts, P.K. Robertson, M.R. Tarbotton, and D.J. Woeller. 1994. Fraser River delta: Geology, geohazards and human impact. In: Geology and Geological Hazards of the Vancouver Region, Southwestern British Columbia, ed. J.W.H. Monger. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 481:197–220.

Mathews, W.H., and F.P. Shepard. 1962. Sedimentation of the Fraser River delta. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 46:1416–1463.

Mathews, W.H., J.G. Fyles, and H.W. Nasmith. 1970. Postglacial crustal movements in southwestern British Columbia and adja-cent Washington State. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 7:690–702.

Milliman, J.D. 1980. Sedimentation in the Fraser River and its estuary, southwestern British Columbia. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 10:609–633.

Monger, J.W.H., and J.M. Journeay. 1994. Basement geology and tectonic evolution of the Vancouver region. In: Geology and Geological Hazards of the Vancouver Region, Southwestern British Columbia, ed. J.W.H. Monger. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 481:3–25.

Mosher, D.C., and T.S. Hamilton. 1998. Morphology, structure, and stratigraphy of the offshore Fraser delta and adjacent Strait of Georgia. In: Geology and Natural Hazards of the Fraser River Delta, British Columbia, ed. J.J. Clague, J.L. Luternauer, and D.C. Mosher. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 525:147–160.

Mustard, P.S. 1994. The Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group, Geor-gia Basin. In: Geology and Geological Hazards of the Vancouver Region, Southwestern British Columbia, ed. J.W.H. Monger. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 481:27–95

Mustard, P.S., and G.E. Rouse. 1994. Stratigraphy and evolution of Tertiary Georgia Basin and subjacent Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, southwestern British Columbia. In: Geology and Geological Hazards of the Vancouver Region, Southwestern British Columbia, ed. J.W.H. Monger. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 481:97–169.

Pharo, C.H., and W.C. Barnes. 1976. Distribution of surficial sediments of the central and southern Strait of Georgia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 13:684–696.

Pickard, G.L. 1956. Surface and bottom currents in the Strait of Georgia. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 13:581–590.

Thomson, R.E. 1981. Oceanography of the British Columbia coast. Canadian Special Publication in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56.

Tiffin, D.L. 1969. Continuous seismic reflection profiling in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. PhD thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

Williams, H.F.L. and M.C. Roberts. 1989. Holocene sea-level change and delta growth: Fraser River delta, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 26:1657–1666.

 

02: The Physical Ocean by Richard Thomson

Acknowledgements

Further Reading

Allen, S.E., and M.A. Wolfe. 2013. Hindcast of the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Strait of Georgia, 1968–2010. Progress in Oceanography 115:6-13.

Burd, B.J., P.A.G. Barnes, C.A. Wright, and R.E. Thomson. 2009. A review of subtidal benthic habitats and invertebrate biota of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Marine Environmental Research, 66:S3–S38, Supplement: Benthic processes, organic carbon cycling and contaminants in the Strait of Georgia, Canada, B. Burd, S. Johannessen, and R. Macdonald (eds.)

Crean, P.B., T.S. Murty, and J.A. Stronach. 1988. Mathematical modelling of the tides and estuarine circulation: The coastal seas of southern British Columbia and Washington State. In: M.J. Bowan et al. (eds.) Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies 30, Springer Verlag.

Foreman, M.G.G., R.A. Walters, R.F. Henry, C.P. Keller, and A.G. Dolling. 1995. A tidal model for eastern Juan de Fuca Strait and the southern Strait of Georgia. Journal of Geophysical Research C1 100:721–740.

Johannessen, S., D. Masson, and R.W. Macdonald. 2006. Distribution and cycling of suspended particles inferred from transmissivity in the Strait of Georgia, Haro Strait, and Juan de Fuca Strait. Atmosphere-Ocean 44(1): 17–27.

Johannessen, S., and R.W. Macdonald. 2009. Effects of local and global change on an inland sea: The Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Climate Research 40:1–21.

LeBlond, P.H. 1983. The Strait of Georgia: Functional anatomy of a coastal sea. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40:1033–1063.

Li, M., A. Gargett, and K. Denman. 1999. Seasonal and interannual variability in estuarine circulation in a box model of the Strait of Georgia and Juan de Fuca Strait. Atmosphere-Ocean 37:1–19.

Masson, D. 2002. Deep water renewal in the Strait of Georgia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 54:115–126.

Masson, D., and P.F. Cummins. 2004. Observations and modeling of seasonal variability in the Straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. Journal of Marine Research 62:491–516.

Mazzotti, S., C. Jones, and R.E. Thomson. 2008. Relative and absolute sea-level rise in western Canada and north-western U.S. from a combined tide gauge-GPS analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 113:C11019, doi:10.1029/2008JC004835.

Morrison, J., M.C. Quick, and M.G.G. Foreman. 2002. Climate change in the Fraser River watershed: Flow and temperature projections. Journal of Hydrology 263:230–244.

Pawlowicz, R. 2003. Quantitative visualization of geophysical flows using low-cost oblique digital time-lapse imaging. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 28 (4): 699–710.

Pawlowicz, R., O. Riche, and M. Halverson. 2007. The circulation and residence time of the Strait of Georgia using a simple mixing-box approach. Atmosphere-Ocean 45:173–193.

Thomson, R.E. 1981. Oceanography of the British Columbia Coast. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56. Ottawa ON.

___. 1994. Physical oceanography of the Strait of Georgia-Puget Sound-Juan de Fuca Strait system. In: R.H. Wilson, R.J. Beamish, F. Aitkens, and J. Bell (eds.) Review of the marine environment and biota of Strait of Georgia, Puget Sound and Juan de Fuca Strait. Proceedings of the BC/Washington Symposium on the Marine Environment, January 13–14, 1994, 36–100.

Thomson, R.E., and M.G.G. Foreman. 1998. Basin areas and volumes for coastal southwest British Columbia and northwest Washington. Canadian Technical Report of Hydrography and Ocean Sciences 196. Ottawa ON.

Thomson, R.E., B.D. Bornhold and S. Mazzotti. 2008. An examination of the factors affecting relative and absolute sea level in coastal British Columbia. Canadian Manuscript Report of Hydrography and Ocean Sciences 260, Ottawa ON.

Waldichuck, M. 1957. Physical oceanography of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 14:321–486.

Whitfield, P.H., and C. Spence. 2011. Estimates of Canadian Pacific coast runoff from observed streamflow data. Journal of Hydrology 410:141–149.

 

03: The Biological Ocean by Paul Harrison and Dave Mackas

Further Reading

Bakun, A. 1996. Patterns in the Ocean: Ocean Processes and Marine Population Dynamics. California: Sea Grant.

Haigh, N. 2011. Plankton Identification Handbook for Shellfish Growers on the West Coast of Canada. Microthalassia Publishers.

___. 2012. Harmful Plankton Handbook: HAMP 2012. Microthalassia Publishers.

Horner, R.A. 2002. Guide to Some Common Marine Phytoplankton. Dorchester UK: Biopress Ltd.

Strickland, R.M. 1983. The Fertile Fjord: Plankton in Puget Sound. Washington DC: Washington Sea Grant.

 

Online Resources

Phyto’pedia, the visual encyclopedia of common plankton in BC. A new resource that compiles ecological and taxonomic information with high-quality images. eos.ubc.ca/research/phytoplankton

A Guide to the Marine Plankton of Southern California, by Robert Perry—UCLA OceanGLOBE and Malibu High School. A good general guide for plankton. msc.ucla.edu/oceanglobe/pdf/guide_plankton1.pdf

“Phytoplankton.” Prepared by Gregg W. Langlois and Patricia Smith, this is a chapter of the book Beyond the Golden Gate—Oceanography, Geology, Biology, and Environmental Issues in the Gulf of the Farallones. 2001. Herman A. Karl, John L. Chin, Edward Ueber, Peter H. Stauffer, and James W. Hendley II (eds.). It is a general explanation about phytoplankton and harmful algae blooms with images. pubs.usgs.gov/circ/c1198/chapters/123-132_Phytoplankton.pdf.

Beyond the Golden Gate—Oceanography, Geology, Biology, and Environmental Issues in the Gulf of the Farallones. 2001. Herman A. Karl, John L. Chin, Edward Ueber, Peter H. Stauffer, and James W. Hendley II (eds.). This is a book on oceanography and marine biology that can be downloaded for free at http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/c1198

NOAA’s harmful algal bloom hunter’s handbook. A complete guide with activities, general information, photo identification. nwfsc.noaa.gov/hab/outreach/pdf_files/habhunthdbk.pdf

Apendix D: Plankton, Ecosystem overview: Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area (PNCIMA), 2007. By David Mackas, Angelica Pena, Duncan Johannessen, Rick Birch, Keith Borg, and David Fissel. Editors: B.G. Lucas, S. Verrin, and R. Brown. Overview of the plankton in the region. pncima.org/media/documents/pncima-publications/pncima_eoar_328842_d_plankton.pdf

Video “Cruise Cruise Baby” posted on the University of New Hampshire Coastal Ocean Observing Center website cooa.unh.edu/cruise_cruise_baby.jsp

 

Other Useful References

Harrison, P.J., T.R. Parsons, F.J.R. Taylor and J.D. Fulton. 1983. Review of biological oceanography of the Strait of Georgia: Pelagic Environment. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40:1064–1094.

Mackas, D.L., and P.J. Harrison. 1996. Nitrogenous nutrient sources and sinks in Juan de Fuca Strait/Strait of Georgia/Puget Sound estuarine system: Assessing the potential for eutrophication. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science 44:1–21.

Mackas, D., M. Galbraith, D. Faust, D. Masson, K. Young, W. Shaw, S. Romaine, M. Trudel, J. Dower, R. Campbell, A. Sastri, E.A. Bornhold Pechter, E. Pakhomov, and R. El-Sabaawi. 2013. Zooplankton time series from the Strait of Georgia: Results from year-round sampling at deep-water locations, 1990–2010. Progress in Oceanography 115:129–159.

Masson, D., and A. Pena. 2009. Chlorophyll distribution in a temperate estuary: The Strait of Georgia and Juan de Fuca Strait. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science 82:19–28.

Yin, K., P.J. Harrison, R.H. Goldblatt, M.A. St. John, and R.J. Beamish. 1997. Factors controlling the timing of the spring bloom in the Strait of Georgia estuary, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54:1985–1995.

 

04: The Invertebrate and Marine Plants by Rick Harbo

Acknowledgements

Further Reading

Invertebrates—General

Austin, W.C. 1985. An Annotated Checklist of Marine Invertebrates In The Cold Temperate Northeast Pacific, vols. 1–3. Cowichan Bay BC: Khoyatan Marine Laboratory.

Carlton, J., ed. 2007. The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon, 4th ed., completely revised and expanded. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.

Denny, M.W., and S.D. Gaines. 2007. Encyclopedia of Tidepools and Rocky Shores. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.

Kozloff, E.N. 1983. Seashore Life of the Northern Pacific Coast: An Illustrated Guide to Northern California, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. Vancouver BC: Douglas & McIntyre.

___. 1966. Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Harbo, R.M. 2011. Whelks to Whales: Coastal Marine Life of the Pacific Northwest, 2nd ed. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

Lamb, A., and B.P. Hanby. 2005. Marine Life of the Pacific Northwest: A Photographic Encyclopedia of Invertebrates, Seaweeds and Selected Fishes. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

Morris, R.H., D.P. Abbott, and E.C. Haderlie. 1980. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.

Ricketts, E.F., J. Calvin, and J.W. Hedgepeth. Revised by D.W. Phillips. 1985. Between Pacific Tides, 5th ed. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.

 

Hydroids, Corals, Sea Anemones, Jellyfish, Comb Jellies

Wing, B.L., and D.N. Barnard. 2004, A Field Guide to Alaskan Corals. NOAA Tech. Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-146.

Wrobel, D., and C. Mills. 1998. Pacific Coast Pelagic Invertebrates: A Guide to the Common Gelatinous Animals. Monterey CA: Sea Challengers.

 

Mollusks

Behrens, D.W. 1991. Pacific Coast Nudibranchs, 2nd ed. Monterey CA: Sea Challengers.

Behrens, D.W., and A. Hermosillo. 2005. Eastern Pacific Nudibranchs: A Guide to the Opisthobranchs from Alaska to Central America. Monterey CA: Sea Challengers.

Coan, E.V., P.V. Scott, and F.R. Bernard. 2000. Bivalve Seashells of Western North America: Marine Bivalve Mollusks from Arctic Alaska to Baja California. Santa Barbara CA: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.

Cosgrove, J.A., and N. McDaniel. 2009. Super Suckers: The Giant Pacific Octopus and Other Cephalapods of the Pacific Coast. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

Harbo, R.M. 1997. Shells and Shellfish of the Pacific Northwest: A Field Guide. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

___. 2009. A Field Guide to Seashells and Shellfish of the Pacific Northwest. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

___. 2010. A Field Guide to Nudibranchs of the Pacific Northwest. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

 

Crabs, Shrimp, Barnacles

Butler, T.H. 1980. Shrimps of the Pacific coast of Canada. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 202.

Cornwall, I.E. 1970. Barnacles of British Columbia (Handbook No. 7). Victoria BC: British Columbia Provincial Museum.

Hart, J.F.L. 1982. Crabs and Their Relatives of British Columbia (Handbook No. 40). Victoria BC: British Columbia Provincial Museum.

Jensen, G.C. 2014. Crabs and Shrimps of the Pacific Coast: A Guide to Shallow-water Decapods from Southeastern Alaska to the Mexican Border. Bremerton WA: MolaMarine.

 

Sea Stars, Sea Cucumbers

Lambert, P. 1997. Sea Cucumbers of British Columbia, Southeast Alaska and Puget Sound. Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook. Vancouver BC: UBC Press.

___. 2000. Sea Stars of British Columbia, Southeast Alaska and Puget Sound. Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook. Victoria and Vancouver BC: Royal BC Museum and UBC Press.

Lambert, P., and W.C. Austin. 2007. Brittle Stars, Sea Urchins and Feather Stars of British Columbia, Southeast Alaska and Puget Sound. Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook. Victoria BC: Royal BC Museum.

McDaniel, N. 2011. A Field Guide to Seastars of the Pacific Northwest. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

 

Fishes

Gillespie, G.E. 1993. An updated list of the fishes of British Columbia, and those of interest in adjacent waters, with numeric code designations. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 1918.

Hart, J.L. 1973. Pacific Fishes of Canada. Ottawa ON: Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 180.

Lamb, A., and P. Edgell. 2010. Coastal Fishes of the Pacific Northwest. Revised and expanded 2nd ed. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

 

Seaweeds

Abbott, I.A., and G.J. Hollenberg. 1976. Marine Algae of California. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.

Druehl, L. 2000. Pacific Seaweeds: A Guide to Common Seaweeds of the West Coast. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

O’Clair, R.M., S.C. Lindstrom, and I.R. Brodo. 1996. Southeast Alaska’s Rock Shores: Seaweeds and Lichens. Auke Bay AK: Plant Press.

Scagel, R.F., P.W. Gabrielson, D.J. Garbary, L. Golden, M.W. Hawkes, S.C. Lindstrom, J.C. Oliveira, and T.B. Widdowson. 1993. A Synopsis of the Benthic Marine Algae of British Columbia, Southeast Alaska, Washington and Oregon (Phycological Contribution No. 3). Vancouver BC: University of British Columbia, Department of Botany.

 

Reproduction

Strathman, M.F. 1987. Reproduction and Development of Marine Invertebrates of the Northern Pacific Coast: Data and Methods for the Study of Eggs, Embryo and Larvae. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press.

 

Invasive Species

Claudi, R., P. Nantel, and E. Muckle-Jeffs. 2002. Alien Invaders in Canada’s Waters, Wetlands and Forests. Ottawa ON: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Science Branch.

 

05: The Fishes by Richard Beamish

Acknowledgements

Further Reading

Carl, G.C. 1964. Some Common Marine Fishes of British Columbia, Handbook 23. Victoria BC: British Columbia Provincial Museum.

DeLacy, A.C., B.S. Miller, and S.F. Borton. 1972. Checklist of Puget Sound Fishes. Washington Sea Grant 72-3. Seattle WA: University of Washington.

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald, and H. Hammann. 1983. A Field Guide to Pacific Coast Fishes of North America. Boston MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Harbo, R.M. 1980. Tidepool & Reef: Marine Life Guide to the Pacific Northwest Coast. Surrey BC: Hancock House Publishing Ltd.

Hart, J.L. 1973. Pacific Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bulletin 180. Ottawa ON.

Lamb, A., and P. Edgell. 2010. Coastal Fishes of the Pacific Northwest. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing.

Lamb, A., and Bernard P. Hanby. 2012. Marine Life of the Pacific Northwest: A Photographic Encyclopedia of Invertebrates, Seaweeds and Selected Fishes. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

Love, M.S. 2011. Certainly More Than You Want to Know About the Fishes of the Pacific Coast: A Postmodern Experience. Santa Barbara CA: Really Big Press.

Love, M.S., M. Yoklavich, and L. Thorsteinson. 2002. The Rockfishes of the Northeast Pacific. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.

MacPhail, J.D. 2007. The Freshwater Fishes of British Columbia. Edmonton AB: The University of Alberta Press.

Marliave, J.B., C.J. Gibbs, D.M. Gibbs, A.O. Lamb and S.J.F. Young, 2011. Biodiversity stability of shallow marine benthos in Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada through climate regimes, overfishing and ocean acidification. In: Biodiversity Loss in a Changing Planet, O. Grillo and G. Venora (eds.). InTech Web, pp. 49–74. Available from: intechopen.com/articles/show/title/biodiversity-stability-of-shallow-marine-benthos-in-strait-of-georgia-british-columbia-canada-throug

Mecklenberg, C.W., T.A. Mecklenberg, and L.K. Thorsteinson. 2002. Fishes of Alaska. Bethesda MD: American Fisheries Society.

Page, L.M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L.T. Findley, C.R. Gilbert, R.N. Lea, N.E. Mandrak, R.L. Mayden, and J.S. Nelson. 2013. Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. 7th ed. Bethesda MD: American Fisheries Society Special Publication 34.

Somerton, D., and C. Murray. 1976. Field Guide to the Fish of Puget Sound and the Northwest Coast. Seattle WA: University of Washington Press.

Tomascik, T., and C.L.K. Robinson, 2000. Fish assemblages of the southern Gulf Islands, BC: An analysis of recreational SCUBA dive log data. Research Links: A forum for natural, cultural and social studies 8(3): 11–13, 20. Parks Canada, Western Canada.

 

06: The Marine Mammals by Andrew Trites

Acknowledgements

Further Reading

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Marine Mammal Specialist Committee, sararegistry.gc.ca/status/status_e.cfm.

COSEWIC. 2003. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena (Pacific Ocean population) in Canada. Ottawa ON: Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

COSEWIC. 2004. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the grey whale (Eastern North Pacific population) Eschrichtius robustus in Canada. Ottawa ON: Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

COSEWIC. 2008. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the killer whale Orcinus orca, Southern Resident population, Northern Resident population, West Coast Transient population, Offshore population and Northwest Atlantic / Eastern Arctic population, in Canada. Ottawa ON: Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

COSEWIC. 2011. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae in Canada. Ottawa ON: Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2007. Recovery strategy for the transient killer whale (Orcinus orca) in Canada. In Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Vancouver BC: Fisheries and Oceans Can-ada.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2009. Management Plan for the Pacific harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Canada. In: Species at Risk Act Management Plan Series. Ottawa ON: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2011. Management plan for the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in Canada. In: Species at Risk Act Management Plan Series. Ottawa ON: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Ford, J.K.B. 2014. The Marine Mammals of British Columbia. Royal BC Museum handbook: Mammals of BC, vol. 6. Victoria BC: Royal BC Museum.

Ford, J.K.B., G.M. Ellis, and K.C. Balcomb. 2000. Killer Whales: The Natural History and Genealogy of Orcinus orca in British Columbia and Washington, 2nd ed. Vancouver BC: University of British Columbia Press.

National Marine Fisheries Service. 2008. Recovery plan for the Steller sea lion: Eastern and western distinct population segments (Eumetopias jubatus). Silver Spring MD: National Marine Fisheries Service.

Perrin, W.F., B. Wursig, and H.G.M. Thewissen (eds.). 2009. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. San Diego CA: Academic Press.

 

07: The Coastal Birds by Douglas Bertram

Acknowledgements

Further Reading

Boyd, W.S., D.H. Ward, D.K. Kraege, and A.A. Gerick. 2013. Migration patterns of western High Arctic (Grey-belly) brant Branta bernicula. Wildfowl Special Issue 3:3–25. Additional satellite telemetry work on Barrow’s goldeneye by Dr. W. Sean Boyd and colleagues can be found at http://www.sfu.ca/biology/wildberg/CWESeaducksfolder/BAGOwebpage/BAGOMigrationHome.html (accessed July 2, 2014). For surf scoter migration maps see http://seaduckjv.org/sts_ss_bc_maps.html (accessed July 2, 2014)

Butler, R. 1997. The Great Blue Heron: A natural history and ecology of a seashore sentinel. Vancouver BC: UBC Press.

Blight, L.K. 2011. Egg production in a coastal seabird, the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), declines during the last century. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22027. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022027

Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser, and M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia, vol. 1. Victoria BC: Royal British Columbia Museum and Canadian Wildlife Service.

Cannings, R., H. Opperman, and T. Aversa. 2005. Birds of Southwestern British Columbia. Surrey BC: Heritage House Publishing.

Drever, M.C., M.J.F. Lemon, R.W. Butler, and R.L. Millikin. 2014. Monitoring populations of western sandpipers and Pacific dunlins during northward migration on the Fraser River delta, British Columbia, 1991–2013. Journal of Field Ornithology 85(1): 10–22.

Elliot, K.H., J.E. Elliot, L.K. Wilson, I. Jones, and K. Stenerson. 2011. Density dependence in the survival and reproduction of bald eagles: Linkages to chum salmon. The Journal of Wildlife Management 75:1688-1699.

Elner, R.W., P.G. Beninger, D.L. Jackson, and T.M. Potter. 2005. Evidence of a new feeding mode in western sandpiper (Calidris mauri) and dunlin (Calidris alpina) based on bill and tongue morphology and ultrastructure. Marine Biology 146:1223–1234.

Finley, J.K. 2007. The punctual bufflehead, Bucephala albeola: Autumn arrivals in Shoal Harbour Sanctuary, Vancouver Island, in relation to freeze-up. Canadian Field-Naturalist 121(4): 370–374.

Haegele, C. 1993. Seabird predation of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi, spawn in British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 107(1): 73–82.

Hatch, S.F. (ed.), D.F. Bertram, J. Bower, and P.D. O’Hara (guest eds.). 2009. The Salish Sea ecosystem: Status and impacts of changes on marine birds. Marine Ornithology, Salish Sea Symposium Issue 37:1–76. marineornithology.org/cgi-bin/getpage.cgi?vol=37&no=1 (accessed July 4, 2014)

Lok, E.K., D. Esler, J.Y. Takekawa, S.W. De La Cruz, W.S. Boyd, D.R. Nysewander, J.R. Evenson, and D.H. Ward. 2012. Spatiotemporal associations between Pacific herring spawn and surf scoter spring migration: Evaluating a “silver wave” hypothesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 457:139–150.

Norris, R.D., P. Arcese, D. Preikshot, D.F. Bertram, and K.T. Kyser. 2007. Diet reconstruction and historic population dynamics in a threatened seabird. Journal of Applied Ecology 44 (4): 875–884.

Rodway, M.S., H.M. Regehr, J. Ashley, P.V. Clarkson, R.I. Goudie, D.E. Hay, C.M. Smith, and K.G. Wright. 2003. Aggregative response of harlequin ducks to herring spawning in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:504–514.

Sullivan, T.M., R.W. Butler, and W.S. Boyd. 2002. Seasonal distribution of waterbirds in relation to spawning Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 116:366–370

Wilson, S.D., E.M. Anderson, A. Wilson, D.F. Bertram, and P. Arcese. 2013. Citizen science reveals an extensive shift in the winter distribution of migratory western grebes. PLoS ONE 8(6): e65408. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065408.

Wood, C.C. 1987. Predation of juvenile Pacific salmon by the common merganser (Mergus merganser) on eastern Vancouver Island. Predation during the seaward migration. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44:941–949

Vermeer, K., and R.W. Butler., (eds). 1989. The Ecology and Status of Marine and Shoreline Birds in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Special publication. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service.

Ydenberg, R.C., R.W. Butler, D.B. Lank, B.D. Smith, and J. Ireland. 2004. Western sandpipers have altered migration tactics as peregrine falcon populations have recovered. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B 271 (1545):1263–1269.

 

Websites

Bird Studies Canada, Breeding Bird Atlas for BC, birdscanada.org

British Columbia Purple Martin Stewardship and Recovery Program, saveourmartins.org/index.html

British Columbia Waterfowl Society, reifelbirdsanctuary.com/migrate.pdf

Centre for Wildlife Ecology nest photo gallery, sfu.ca/biology/wildberg/species/mamu.html

Green Shores, salishsea.ca/resources/Riparianrights/Greenshores%20JurisdictionIssueSheet_finalVer4.pdf

International Brant Monitoring Project, padillabay.gov/brant

Northwest Straits Marine Conservation Initiative, nwstraits.org

Washington State Coastal Zone Management, Fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/publications/0006029.pdf

Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, whsrn.org

 

08: The Pre-Contact Era by Terry Glavin

Sources

Credit is owed Puneluxutth’ elder Augie Sylvester, who was featured in an essay of mine (“This Haunted Place,” the Georgia Straight, August 25, 2005), and also Brian Justin Tucker, whose 2010 University of Victoria Department of Geography MA thesis, “Inventing the Salish Sea: Exploring the Performative Act of Place Naming off the Pacific Coast of North America” I contributed to in a very small way. For an overview of the decline in the diversity and abundance of species in the Strait of Georgia’s marine ecosystem, see Scott Wallace’s handy “State of the Strait: The History and Future Outlook of the Strait of Georgia Marine Fisheries,” Sierra Club of BC, Victoria, November 2002. For an examination into the evolution and development of Coast Salish culture, see Wayne Suttles’ “Northwest Coast Linguistic History—A View from the Coast,” in Coast Salish Essays, Talonbooks, Vancouver, 1987.

The articles and columns I’ve written about the Tsawwassen people over the years began with the tragic dilemma of the “salvage archeology” that unearthed the tombs I refer to in the chapter and continued over more than 20 years to “Treaty Rights,” an essay in Vancouver Magazine, April 1, 2009. Archeologist Geordie Howe was most helpful in the early days. For background on the Tsawwassen maritime economy, see Randy Bouchard and Dorothy Kennedy, “Tsawwassen Ethnography and Ethnohistory,” in Archeological Investigations at Tsawwassen, BC, Volume 1, Arcas Consulting Archeologists Ltd., 1991.

For the antiquity of the Fraser Canyon fisheries, see Donald Mitchell and David L. Pokotylo, “Early Period Components at the Milliken Site,” in Early Human Occupation in British Columbia, Roy L. Carlson and Luke Dalla Bona, eds., UBC Press, 1996. David Schaepe’s pioneering work on the “invisible” walls in the canyon can be found in “Rock Wall Fortifications: Reconstructing a Fraser Canyon Defensive Network,” in A Stó:lō-Coast Salish Historical Atlas, Keith Carlson, Albert McHalsie, et al., eds., Stó:lō Heritage Trust, Douglas & McIntyre / University of Washington Press, 2001.

The tireless anthropologist and ethnographer Wayne Suttles produced much splendid work on the Coast Salish and I relied on his efforts throughout the chapter, but his reference to clam gardens appears, of all places, in his essay “The Early Diffusion of the Potato among the Coast Salish,” in Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, vol. 7, no. 3, 1951. The key early authority on the extent and breadth of clam gardens in the Strait is John Harper, who worked with Adam Dick to produce “Clam Gardens of British Columbia,” a Canadian Archeological Association conference paper, Nanaimo, 2005.

Megan Caldwell’s great work and a canvassing of the material on the Comox fish-trap complex can be found in Caldwell’s “Fish Traps and Shell Middens at Comox Harbour, British Columbia,” in The Archeology of North Pacific Fisheries, Madonna L. Moss and Aubrey Cannon, eds., University of Alaska Press, 2011. For the astonishing diversity of marine species exploited by Strait of Georgia communities, see Diane Kay Hanson, “Late Prehistoric Subsistence in the Strait of Georgia Region of the Northwest Coast,” PhD thesis, Department of Archeology, Simon Fraser University, 1991. For an overview of salmon-fishing technology and fishing-effort distribution, see Parzival Cops et al. in “Aboriginal Peoples and the Fishery on Fraser River Salmon,” West Coast Fishing Sectoral Study, Report for the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1994, as well as Suttles’ “Variations in Habitat and Culture on the Northwest Coast,” in his book Coast Salish Essays, Talonbooks, Vancouver, 1987.

Old Pierre’s account of the smallpox epidemic is from “The Faith of a Coast Salish Indian,” by Diamond Jenness, which appears with Suttles’ “Katzie Ethnographic Notes” in the combined volume Anthropology in British Columbia Memoirs Nos. 2 & 3, British Columbia Provincial Museum, 1955.

For an overview of the varying estimates of mortality rates from the many disease outbreaks that ravaged the coast’s aboriginal societies, see John Douglas Belshaw, Becoming British Columbia: A Population History, UBC Press, 2009.

The early explorers’ accounts are largely from George Vancouver’s A Voyage of Discovery, to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World, GG & J Robinson, London, 1798 and “Thomas Manby’s Journal, 1790–1793,” cited in Cole Harris’s seminal “Voices of Disaster: Smallpox around the Strait of Georgia in 1782,” in Ethnohistory, 41:4, 1994. I relied very heavily on Harris’s groundbreaking work on the Coast Salish smallpox catastrophe, as well as the research accumulated by Robert Boyd in his The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence: Introduced Infectious Diseases and Population Decline among Northwest Coast Indians, 1774–1874, University of Washington Press, 1999.

For estimates of the salmon catch during the pre-smallpox period, see Gordon W. Hewes’ “Indian Fisheries Productivity in Pre-contact Times in the Pacific Salmon Area,” in Northwest Anthropological Research Notes, #7, 1973, and Brian Chisholm et al., “Marine and terrestrial protein in prehistoric diets on the British Columbia coast,” Current Anthropology 24:3, 1983. Also see Joseph E. Taylor’s Making Salmon: An Environmental History of the Northwest Fisheries Crisis, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1999, and Karen Fediuk and Brian Thom’s “Contemporary & Desired Use of Traditional Resources in a Coast Salish Community: Implications for Food Security and Aboriginal Rights in British Columbia,” a paper presented at the 26th Annual Meeting of the Society for Ethnobiology, Seattle, March 27, 2003.

A coast-wide overview of the “pre-contact” aboriginal fishery’s species and technologies is to be found in Roy L. Carlson’s “The Native Fishery in British Columbia: The Archeological Evidence,” Paper, May 15, 1992. For fishing technologies, see Patricia A. Berringer’s “Northwest coast traditional salmon fisheries: systems of resource utilization,” master’s thesis, University of British Columbia, 1982.

The overview of the nineteenth century Fraser River aboriginal fisheries is taken from Wilson Duff’s classic work, “The Upper Stalo Indians of the Fraser Valley, British Columbia,” Anthropology in British Columbia, Memoir No. 1, BC Provincial Museum, 1952. I also drew from my own “History of the Salmon Fisheries of the Pacific Northwest Coast,” in Sustaining North American Salmon: Perspectives Across Regions and Disciplines, Kristine D. Lynch, Michael L. Jones, and William W. Taylor, eds., American Fisheries Society, 2002. Wayne Suttles’ “The Recent Emergence of the Coast Salish—The Function of an Anthropological Myth,” appears in his book, Coast Salish Essays, Talonbooks, Vancouver, 1987.

 

09: The Zone of Encounter by Stewart Muir

Further Reading

Bawlf, S. 2003. The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake. Vancouver BC: Douglas & McIntyre.

Bown, S.R. 2008. Madness, Betrayal and the Lash: The Epic Voyage of Captain George Vancouver. Vancouver BC: Douglas & McIntyre.

Campbell, K.M. 2004. Cannery Village: Company Town. Victoria BC: Trafford.

Clayton, D.W. 2000. Islands of Truth: The Imperial Fashioning of Vancouver Island. Vancouver BC: UBC Press.

Coffey, M. 1996. Sailing Back in Time: A Nostalgic Voyage on Canada’s West Coast. Vancouver and Toronto: Whitecap Books.

Conover, D. 1980. One Man’s Island: The Intimate Journal of a Family’s Four Seasons on their Wilderness Island, 2nd ed. (orig. pub. 1971). Markham, ON: Paper Jacks, Ltd.

Corbett, S. 1987. Lund: The beginning of the road. Raincoast Chronicles 11: Forgotten Villages of the BC Coast. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

Daly, E.I. 1983. Capi’ Blanchet. Raincoast Chronicles Six/Ten, vol 8. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

Dunster, K. 2005. Unravelling a few threads of history. In: Islands in the Salish Sea: A Community Atlas. S. Harrington and J. Stevenson (eds.). Victoria BC: TouchWood Editions.

Edwards, H. 2007. Wallace Island: A microcosm of Gulf Islands development. B.C. History 40, no. 1. Vancouver.

Evenden, M.D. 2004. Fish versus Power: An Environmental History of the Fraser River. Cambridge University Press.

Gough, B.M. 1984. Gunboat Frontier: British Maritime Authority and Northwest Coast Indians, 1846–1890. Vancouver BC: UBC Press.

___. 1992. The Northwest Coast: British Navigation, Trade, and Dis-coveries to 1812. Vancouver BC: UBC Press.

Graham, D. 1986. Lights of the Inside Passage: A History of British Columbia’s Lighthouses and their Keepers. Madeira Park BC: Har-bour Publishing.

Harris, R.C. 2002. Making Native Space: Colonialism, Resistance, and Reserves in British Columbia. Vancouver BC: UBC Press.

Hill, B. 1985. Upcoast Summers. Ganges BC: Horsdal and Schubart.

Holecka, J. 1972. Pender Harbour: A steamer stop. In: Raincoast Chronicles First Five. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

Lillard, C. 1993. Seven Shillings a Year: The History of Vancouver Island. Ganges BC: Horsdal & Schubart.

Little, J.I. 2007. West Coast picturesque: Class, gender and race in a British colonial landscape, 1858–71. Journal of Canadian Studies 41.

Mackie, R.S. 1995. The Wilderness Profound: Victorian Life on the Gulf of Georgia. Victoria BC: Sono Nis Press.

___. 1997. Trading Beyond the Mountains: The British Fur Trade on the Pacific, 1793–1843. Vancouver BC: UBC Press.

McDonald, R.A.J. 1996. Making Vancouver: Class, Status, and Social Boundaries, 1863–1913. Vancouver BC: UBC Press.

Moogk, P. 1978. Vancouver Defended. Surrey BC: Antonson Publishing Ltd.

Mortensen, L.O. 2003. Oar, paddle and sail: Nineteenth-century transit along the B.C. coast. Raincoast Chronicles 19. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

Murray, P. 1991. Homesteads and Snug Harbours: The Gulf Islands. Ganges BC: Horsdal & Schubart.

Newell, D. 1989. The Development of the Pacific Salmon-Canning Industry: A Grown Man’s Game. Montreal QC: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Roy, P. 2003. The Oriental Question: Consolidating a White Man’s Province, 1914–1941. Vancouver BC: UBC Press.

Rushton, G.A. 1974. Whistle Up the Inlet: The Union Steamship Story. Vancouver BC: Douglas & McIntyre.

Teece, P. 1999. A Shimmer on the Horizon: Memories of Sailing on the West Coast. Victoria BC: Orca Book Publishers.

Tickner, F. 1992. Oh, the fishing! In: Raincoast Chronicles 14: Fish Hooks & Caulk Boots. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

Ward, R. 1993. Robin Ward’s Heritage West Coast. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

Weyler, R. 2004. Greenpeace: How a Group of Ecologists, Journalists, and Visionaries Changed the World. Vancouver BC: Raincoast Books.

White, H., (ed.). 1976. Raincoast Chronicles: First Five. Madeira Park BC: Harbour Publishing.

Williams, G. 1993. Myth and reality: The theoretical geography of Northwest America from Cook to Vancouver. In: From Maps to Metaphor: The Pacific World of George Vancouver, R. Fisher, H.J.M. Johnston (eds.). Vancouver BC: UBC Press, pp. 35–50.

Winifred, G. 1994. A Gentlewoman’s Remembrances of Life in England and the Gulf of British Columbia, 1871–1910. Marie Elliot (ed.). Victoria BC: Gulf Islands Press.

 

10: The History of the Fisheries by Gordon McFarlane and Jacquelynne King

Acknowledgements

Further Reading

Argue, A.W., and M.P. Shepard, 1989. The commercial harvest of salmon in British Columbia, 1820–1877. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatics Sciences 1690:1–39.

___. 2005. Historical commercial catch statistics for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in British Columbia, 1828 to 1950. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2601:1–57.

Foerster, J.E., and A.D. Foerster, 1975. B.C. Commercial Fishing History. Sannichton, BC: Hancock House.

Garner, K., and Parfitt, B. 2006. First Nations, salmon fisheries and the rising importance of conservation. Report to the Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council.

Isabella, J. 1999. A turbulent industry: Fishing in British Columbia. Journal of the Maritime Museum of British Columbia 45 (Spring 1999). As found at www.canfisco.com/turbulent_industry.html

Ketchen, K., S.N. Bourne, and T.H. Butler, 1983. History and present status of fisheries for marine fishes and invertebrates in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40:1095–1119.

Kristianson, G., and D. Strongitharm, 2006. The evolution of recreational salmon fisheries in British Columbia. Report to the Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council. Vancouver BC.

Nelson, B., and B. Turris, 2004. The evolution of commercial salmon fisheries in British Columbia. Report to the Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council. Vancouver BC.

Westrheim, S.J. 1980. The trawl fishery in the Strait of Georgia and vicinity, 1945–77. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 1530.